Experimental Design

Flashcards on the Psychology topic of Research Methods, Experimental Design. 

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Laboratory Experiment
The Independent variable is directly manipulated, the Extraneous variables are controlled, participants are assigned conditions by random allocation.
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Field Experiment
Controls the Independent variable, Does not control extraneous variables, not necessarily random allocation.
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Natural Experiment
Independent variable is not controlled, quasi-experiment, does not use random allocation to conditions.
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Evaluation of Laboratory Experiment
High Levels of control, high replicability. BUT, lacks ecological validity and could be considered to have artificiality.
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Evaluation of Field Experiment
Cause and effect can be concluded, high levels of ecological validity. BUT, there is less control of ecological validity and it's more time consuming.
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Evaluation of Natural Experiment
High ecological validity, useful where ethics means we can not manipulate the Independent variable (in cases of abuse, parenting etc..) BUT, there may be criticisms for internal validity and no random conditions.
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Independent Groups Design
Participants are randomly allocated to allow either one or the other experiment.
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Repeated Measures Design
The same participants are used in both conditions.
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Matched Pairs Design
Participants are matched as closely as possible with another participant and then pairs are allocated randomly to either one or the other conditions.
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Evaluation of Independent Groups Design
No order effects, reduced chance of demand characteristics. BUT, least effective design for controlling participant variables and more participants are required.
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Evaluation of Repeated Measures Design
Participant variables are eliminated and uses fewer participants. BUT, order effect can occur and there is an increased chance of demand characteristics.
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Evaluation of Matched Pairs Design
No order effects, good attempt at controlling participant variables. BUT, Difficult to match participants exactly and more participants are required.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Controls the Independent variable, Does not control extraneous variables, not necessarily random allocation.

Back

Field Experiment

Card 3

Front

Independent variable is not controlled, quasi-experiment, does not use random allocation to conditions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

High Levels of control, high replicability. BUT, lacks ecological validity and could be considered to have artificiality.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cause and effect can be concluded, high levels of ecological validity. BUT, there is less control of ecological validity and it's more time consuming.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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