Exercise Metabolism

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  • Created by: StephHale
  • Created on: 19-05-15 16:14
Metabolism
sum total of all the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a cell
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Metabolic Pathway
sequence of reactions in a cell
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Glyolysis
Break down glucose to 3 carbon compounds
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Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)
converts acetyl-CoA to CO2
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Pentose Phosphate pathway
reduces NAPP+ coenzyme
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Beta-oxidation
fatty acid to acetyl-coA, reduces FAD and NAD
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Oxidative Phosphorylation
O2 oxidises enzymes
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Nucleus
contains majority of cell's genetic material - DNA
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Nucleolus
makes ribosomal subunits from proteins and rRNA
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Mitochondria
contains enzymes important for cell metabolism
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Centrioles
Involved in development of spindle fibres in cell division
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Golgi apparatus
involved in secretion and intracellular transport
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Cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments and tubules in cytoplasm
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Plasma membrane
regulates passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm
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Cytoplasm
material or protoplasm within a living cell
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Ribosomes
sites of protein synthesis
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
Network of membranous tubules within cytolasm
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1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed
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Turnover
molecules are constantly degraded and synthesized
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ATP
common chemical intermediate which powers muscle contractions and cell work
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Gluconeogenesis
biosynthesis of glucose from simpler molecules
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Electron Transport Chain
series of compounds that transfer electrons from donors to acceptors via redox reactions and to transfer protons across the membrane
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Complex I (ETC)
NADH is oxidised to NAD, electrons
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Complex II (ETC)
FADH oxidised to FAD
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Complex III (ETC)
Cytochrome c reductase - proton pump
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Complex IV (ETC)
Cytochrome c oxidase, 4 electrons removed and transferred to O2 to produce 2 H20
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Complex V (ETC)
ATP synthase
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Enzymes that affect rate of glycolysis (1)
Phosphofructokinase
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Enzymes that affect rate of glycolysis (2)
Pyruvate kinase
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Enzymes that affect rate of glycolysis (3)
Hexokinase
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Enzymes that affect rate of glycolysis (4)
Lactate dehydrogenase
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Enzymes that affect rate of glycolysis (5)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
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Enzymes that affect rate of glycolysis (6)
Glycogen phosphorylase
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Stimulators of enzymes 1
Ca2+
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Stimulators of enzymes 2
ADP
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Stimulators of enzymes 3
AMP
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Stimulators of enzymes 4
Pi
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Stimulators of enzymes 5
pH
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Stimulators of enzymes 6
NH4
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Stimulators of enzymes 7
cAMP
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Inhibitors of enzymes 1
ATP
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Inhibitors of enzymes 2
PCr
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Inhibitors of enzymes 3
Glucose-6-phosphate
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Inhibitors of enzymes 4
NADH
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Inhibitors of enzymes 5
acetyl-CoA
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Inhibitors of enzymes 6
Citrate
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Glyceroshuttle
regenerates NAD+ from NADH
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Malate - Aspartate shuttle
translocates electrons across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion
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1 molecule of NADH
2.5 ATP
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1 molecule of FADH2
1.5 ATP
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Complete breakdown of 1 molecule of glucose (Salway 1999)
31 ATP
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Muscle Glycogen
400g (well fed)
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Liver Glycogen
100g (well fed)
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Most Glycosidic bonds
4
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Some Glycosidic bonds
6
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Glucose polymer
8 molecules
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Molecular weight of glucose
180
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Insulin acts on... to alter plasma glucose levels 1
Hepatocytes
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Insulin acts on... to alter plasma glucose levels 2
Myocytes
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Insulin acts on... to alter plasma glucose levels 3
Adipocytes
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Glycogen
Important energy source for brain and muscles
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Plasma glucose weight
10g
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Plasma glucose energy
40 kcal
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Liver Glycogen weight
100g
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Liver Glycogen energy
400kcal
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Muscle Glycogen weight
400g
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Muscle Glycogen energy
1600kcal
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Total CHO (glucose) weight
510g
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Total CHO (glucose) energy
2000kcal
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Plasma fatty acid weight
0.0004kg
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Plasma fatty acid energy
4kcal
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Plasma triacylglycerol weight
0.004kg
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Plasma triacylglycerol energy
36kcal
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Adipose tissue weight
12kg
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Adipose tissue energy
108000kcal
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Intramuscular triacylglycerol weight
0.3kg
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Intramuscular triacylglycerol energy
2700kcal
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Total Fat weight
12.3044kg
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Total Fat energy
110740kcal
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Saturated fatty acid
no double bonds between two carbon atoms and the maximum nuumber of hydrogen atoms
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Unsaturated fatty acid
one or more double bonds
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Stearic acid
18:0
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Oleic acid
18:1 (n-9)
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Linoleic acid
18:2 (n-6)
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a-Linolenic acid
18:3 (n-3)
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Elaidic acid
18:1 (n-9t)
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Fatty acids stored as triacylglycerol in (1)
Subcutaneous adipose tissue
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Fatty acids stored as triacylglycerol in (2)
Skeletal Muscle
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Fatty acids stored as triacylglycerol in (3)
Other tissues
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Lipolysis
Splitting of a triacylglycerol into fatty acids and glycerol
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Lipase
Enzyme in lipolysis
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 1
Exercise - Ca2+
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 2
AMP
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 3
Adrenergic stimulation (spill over from nerve endings)
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 4
Adrenaline (Epinenephrine)
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 5
Glucagon
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 6
Cortisol
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 7
Growth Hormone
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Factors that stimulate lipolysis 8
Leptin
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Factors that inhibit lipolysis
Insulin
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Adrenaline (1)
Catecholamine secreted by adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings
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Adrenaline (2)
Stress Hormone
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ATP
adenosinetriphosphate
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cAMP
cyclic adenosine monophosphate
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AMP
adenosine monophosphate
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TAG
Triacylglycerol
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FA
Fatty acid
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PK
Protein kinase
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PKA
Protein kinase A
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PKC
Protein kinase C
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HSL
Hormone Sensitive Lipase
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JAK/STAT
janus kinase/signal transducers and activation of transcription
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PDE
phosphodiesterase
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CaMKII
Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase UU
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AMPK
5' AMP activated protein kinase
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ERK
extracellular regulated kinase
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Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase system
transport of long chain fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation
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Regulation of Beta Oxidation 1
acetyl-CoA availability
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Regulation of Beta Oxidation 2
Mitochondrial redox (NADH/NAD+ ratio)
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Beta-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase
inhibited by acetyl-CoA
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

sequence of reactions in a cell

Back

Metabolic Pathway

Card 3

Front

Break down glucose to 3 carbon compounds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

converts acetyl-CoA to CO2

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

reduces NAPP+ coenzyme

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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