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  • Created on: 23-03-14 15:11
Removal of metabolic waste from the body
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Metabolic waste
Waste substances that ar toxic or produced in excess by cellular reactions
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Removal of the amine group from an amino acid to produce ammonia
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Hepatic Portal Vein
Blood vessel carrying blood from the digestive system to the liver
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Kupffer Cells
Breakdown and recycle old erythrocytes
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One of the waste products from the breakdown of haemoglobin
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Excretory product fromed from the breakdown of excess amino acids.
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Ornithine Cycle
Process in which Ammonia is converted to urea. It occurs partly in the cyctol and patyly in mitochondria as ATP is used
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Conversion of toxic molecules to less toxic or non-toxic molecules
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Functional unit of the Kidney.
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Fine network of capillaries that increases the local blood pressure to squeeze fluid out of blood. surrounded by Bowmans capsule which collects the liquid
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Selective reabsorption
Useful substances are reabsorbed from nephron while waste products remain in nephron
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Afferent Vessles
Bring Blood to an organ
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Efferent vessles
take blood away from organs
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Filtration at a molecular level. Large molecules and cells remain in the blood whilst smaller molecules enter the glomerular filtrate
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Specialist cell lining the bowman's capsule
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Folds in the surface membrane increasing a cells surface area
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Co-Transporter proteins
Proteins in the surface membrate that allow facilitated diffusion of ions to be accompanied by transport of larger molecules such as glucose
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Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion that is enhanced by the action of proteins in the cell membrane
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Na+ K+ Pumps
Special proteins in surface membrane that actively transport Na+ and K+ against their concentration gradients
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Hairpin countercurrent multiplier
Arrangement of the tubules in a sharp u bend so one part of the tubule passes close to another part of the tubule with fluid flowing in opposite directions, allowing exchange between the contents and used to make high concentrations of solutes
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Control and regulation of waterpotential of Blood and body fluids. Kidneys control water potential of blood
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Distal convoluted tubule
Coiled portion of the nephron between loop of henle and collecting duct
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Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Released from Pituitary gland and acts on collecting ducts to increase water reabsorption
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cells that monitor water potential of blood. If low, water will leave cells, causing them to shrink, leading to stimulation of neurosecretory cells
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Parto f the brain that contains neurosecretory cells and various receptors to monitor blood
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Neurosecretory cells
Specialised cells that act like nerves but release hormones into blood. ADH is made and passes down axon and stored in synaptic knob. If action potenial passes down cell, ADH is released
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Posterior pituitary gland
hind part of Pituitary gland that releases ADH
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Half live
Time taked for a substances concentration to drop by half of the original value
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Use of a partially permeable membrane to filter blood
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Dialysis membrane and fluid
Separates dialysis fluid and bloodin the machine. Fluid is a complex solution that matches composition of body fluid
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Blood talen from a vein and passed through a dialysis machine so exchange can occur externally.
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Peritoneal dialysis
Dialysis fluid is pumped into the body cavity where exchange can occur
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Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)
Hormone released by human embryo. Present in mothers urine confirming pregnancy
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Monoclonal antibodies
Identical antibodies because they have been produced by cells that are clones of one original cell
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Anabolic steroids
Drugs that mimic action of steroid hormones that increase muscle growth
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Gas chromatography
Technique used to seperate substances in a gaseous state. A Chromatogram is a chart produced when substances are separated by movement of a solvent along a permeable material such as paper of gel
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Card 2


Waste substances that ar toxic or produced in excess by cellular reactions


Metabolic waste

Card 3


Removal of the amine group from an amino acid to produce ammonia


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Card 4


Blood vessel carrying blood from the digestive system to the liver


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Breakdown and recycle old erythrocytes


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