The removal of metabolic waste from the body
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The removal of undigested food by the process of defecation
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Main excretory products
carbon dioxide (produced by respiring cells), urea (produced in the liver), bile pigments
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Excretion example
Bile pigments
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Secretion example
Bile salts
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How is (1) carbon dioxide, (2) urine and (3) bile pigments excreted?
(1) exhalation (2) urea or sweat (3) faeces
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Excess carbon dioxide is toxic, it can:
reduce oxygen transport, forms carbaminohaemoglobin, causes respiratory acidosis
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Excretory organs
lungs, liver, kidneys, skin
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Ornithine cycle
a series of biochemical reactions that convert ammonia to urea
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liver functions
control blood glucose levels, amino acid levels, lipid levels, synthesis of bile, plasma proteins and cholesterol, detoxification of drugs and alcohol, breaks down hormones, destruction of red blood cells
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the functional unit of the kidney
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filtration of the blood at a molecular level under pressure
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kidney role
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Which arteriole is thicker
afferent arteriole
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3 layers between the blood capillary and the lumen of the Bowman's capsule
Endothelium of the capillary, basement capillary, epithelium of the Bowman's capsule
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function of nephron
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loop of henle is also called the...
hairpin countercurrent multiplier
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Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone that controls the permeability of the collecting duct walls
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a sensory receptor that detects changes in water potential
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the control of the water potential in the body
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body gains water from
food, drink, metabolism (eg respiration).
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water lost from the body by
urine, sweat, exhalation, faeces
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the walls of the collecting duct can be made more/less permeable
if you need to conserve less water (cool day, drunk lots), the walls become less permeable so that less water is reabsorbed and more urine is produced.
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Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
the rate at which fluid enters the nephron
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monoclonal antibodies
antibodies made from one type of cell
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renal dialysis
a mechanism used to artificially regulate the concentrations of solutes in the blood
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most common causes of kidney failure
diabetes, hypertension, infection, heart disease
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2 main treatments of kidney failure
dialysis, kidney transplant
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blood passed over a dialysis membrane (partially permeable), allows substance exchange between blood and dialysis fluid
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blood from an artery is passed into a machine (dialyser) that contains an artificial dialysis membrane. Heparin is added. Usually performed at surgery 3 times a week for several hours.
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peritoneal dialysis
permanent tube implanted in the abdomen and diaysis solution poured in to filll space between abdomen walls and organs. patient can walk around.
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advantages of a kidney transplant
freedom from time-consuming dialysis, diet less limited, feeling better physically, better quality of life, no longer see oneself as chronically ill
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disadvantages of kidney transplant
major surgery under general anasthetic, surgery risks, need immunosuppressants, frequent checks for signs of organ rejection, side effects
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urine can be tested for
glucose (diabetes), alcohol, receational drugs, hcG (pregnancy test), anabolic steroids, proteins (hypertension)
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pregnancy tests
manufactured with monoclonal antibodies, which is specific to hcG
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anabolic steroids
increases protein synthesis in cells, giving sporting advantages but have dangerous side effects.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


The removal of undigested food by the process of defecation



Card 3


carbon dioxide (produced by respiring cells), urea (produced in the liver), bile pigments


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Card 4


Bile pigments


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Bile salts


Preview of the back of card 5
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