exchange and transport

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  • Created by: shanade08
  • Created on: 12-09-13 20:24
What do organisms need to keep them alive?
oxygen (aerobic respiration), glucose (energy), proteins (growth and repair), fats (membrane and store of energy water), minerals (metabolism, enzyme action).
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how might organisms get substances?
from their environment, mad einside their cytoplasm as part of cell metabolism.
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what must organisms remove (waste products)?
carbon dioxide(animials and microorganisms, and plants), oxygen(plants and protocists), ammonia, urea, excess nitrogen.
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Why are single celled organisms good at gas exchange?
because they have a large surface area to volume ratio.
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how do large organisms get a sufficient amount of supplies?
They increase their surface area inside the body which makes the surface area to volume ratio larger.
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What features do good exchange surfaces have?
-Large surface area to provide more space for passing molecules. -thin barrier to reduce diffusion distance. -high concentration on supply side. -low concentration on removal side.
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what 3 features are important for maintaining a steep diffusion gradient?
thin barrier, high concentration(supply side), low concentration (removal side)
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Name 4 other exchange surfaces other than the lungs?
-small intestine. -liver. -root hairs of plants. -hyphae of fungi.
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Define gaseous exchange?
is the movement of gases by diffusion between an organism and its environment across a barrier such as the alveolus wall.
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how does air travel through to the lungs?
you take it in through your mouth and nose, it then goes through the trachea on to the brochi, into the bronchioles which goes into the air filled sacs called alveoli. These come in groups like grapes.
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where does the oxygen pass from and to?
from the alveoli through the cell membrane into the blood in capilaries.
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where does carbon dioxide pass from and to?
carbon dioxide comes out of the blood in the capilaries through the cell membrane into the alveoli.
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how are the lungs adapted for exchange? 4
1. large surface area. 2.plasma membrane. 3.evolved barrier. 4. water molecules in the lung.
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how have the lungs evolved to gain a large surface area?
due to alveoli and groups of these creating a large surface area.
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what does the plasma membrane do?
it provides a partially permeable membrane which provides a selective barrier to substances in and out of the cell.
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How has the alveoli barrier evolved to reduce the distance of travel?
alveolus/capilary one cell thick, the cell is a squamous cell (flatened cell), the capilary and alveolus are close, the lumen in the capilary is small so all blood cells become oxygenated.
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how do the water molecules in the lungs help?
gases diffuse best with liquids so the lung is therefore moist to do this. There also is therefore a surfactant to avoid cohesive forces between the air sack and the water molecules.
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what is the cell around the alveolus called?
epithilial cell.
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what is the cell around the capilary called?
endothelial cell.
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explain how the lungs move during inhilation.
diaphram contracts and pushes organs down as it becomes flat. Intercostal muscles contract and raise ribs. volume of chest cavity increases. pressure of chest cavity drops below atmospheric pressure. Air moves in.
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expain how the lungs move during expiration.
diaphram relaxes and is pushed upward by organs.intercostal muscles relax and fall. volume of chest cavity decreases. pressure in lungs increases and rises above atmospheric pressure. Air moves out.
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What are the requirements of the airways in the lungs?
must have a large enough lumen to allow a sufficient amount of air intake. must devide into alveoli. must be strong enough to prevent collapsing when theres low pressure. must allow movement stretching and must recoil.
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what is the wall of the trachea and brochi made of?
cartilage.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

how might organisms get substances?

Back

from their environment, mad einside their cytoplasm as part of cell metabolism.

Card 3

Front

what must organisms remove (waste products)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are single celled organisms good at gas exchange?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how do large organisms get a sufficient amount of supplies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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