EWT - Things to Know

Stuff about eye witness testimony

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Eye Witness Testimony (EWT)
A verbal or written account of an event by the person that witnessed the event.
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Nickerson & Adams (79) - US Penny Piece
Asked participants to draw a US penny piece but from memory. Only 3/8 critical features of the coin were recalled correctly.
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French & Richards (84) - Clock Face
The clock had IIII instead of IV but people recalled with the IV because our expectations take over because of our schema's.
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Bartlett (32) - The War of the Ghosts
We try to make sense of situations that make no sense, so we add or remove parts to the story. 4 People had separate parts of the story and each had to tell the next person their part and the previous part.
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C.A.U.S.E
Context/Age/Use of Questions/Stereotypes/Emotion or Stress - Factors Affecting reliability of EWT.
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Loftus (75) - After the Event
2 Groups, Watched the same clip of a car crash. Barn condition was asked how fast was the car when going past the barn and control was asked how far when traveling down the road.
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Loftus (75) - After the Event Findings
After one week, 17% of people said they saw a barn in the barn condition and only 3% in the control group said they saw a barn.
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Loftus (79) - Anxiety in EWT
Two Participants, different groups. 1 group witnessed a heated argument and someone walking out of the room with a pen, and the other with a knife. People were 49% accurate identifying the pen holder.
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Goodman & Reed (86) - Age in EWT
3 Groups, 3 y.o/6 y.o/22 y.o... 5 minuets in a room with a stranger and asked questions (leading & objective). 5 days later they were asked to answer a questionnaire, free recall of the room and to identify the man.
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Goodman & Reed (86) - Age in EWT Findings
6 & 22 y.o were better at recall and identifying the stranger. Recall of false information was minimal across all ages. As age increased so was resistance to leading questions.
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Kent & Yuille (87) - Age in EWT
Found that younger children were more likely than older children to select someone from a photo display when they were asked to identify a person seen earlier even though the picture was not there.
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Geiselman & Padilla - Age in EWT
Found that children were far less accurate when reporting events of a filmed bank robbery than adults.
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Karpel (2001) - Age in EWT
Conducted a study comparing young adults (17-25) to older adults (65-85)
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Cognitive Interview - Improving accuracy of EWT
Report Every Detail/Recreate the context/recall the event in different orders/report from different perspectives.
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Geiselman (85) - Cognitive Interview
Tested cognitive interview effectiveness by comparing it with standard police interviewing techniques. 89 students were shown some police training video's to violent crimes and were interviewed individually 48 hours later.
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Geiselman (85) - Cognitive Interview Findings
Students recalled considerably more items in the cognitive interview than in the standard interview (control group) although the error rate was similar.
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Evaluation of CI
(W) Takes long time, not used in less serious crimes. (W) Not everyone uses the same components in CI interviews so others are more effective. (S) Very effective and had practical applications in Brazil.
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Card 2

Front

Asked participants to draw a US penny piece but from memory. Only 3/8 critical features of the coin were recalled correctly.

Back

Nickerson & Adams (79) - US Penny Piece

Card 3

Front

The clock had IIII instead of IV but people recalled with the IV because our expectations take over because of our schema's.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

We try to make sense of situations that make no sense, so we add or remove parts to the story. 4 People had separate parts of the story and each had to tell the next person their part and the previous part.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Context/Age/Use of Questions/Stereotypes/Emotion or Stress - Factors Affecting reliability of EWT.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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