Evolutionary explanations of group display in humans

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Hess and Hagen (2006)
Selection pressures would have applied to older teenagers and adults as these ages involve finding mates and positions in same sex hierarchies.
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Owens et al (2000)
Ethnographic research into actual behaviour found that boys typically engage in physical aggression e.g.hitting whereas girls are less overt e.g. negative gossip, ostracism, criticism etc.
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Hess and Hagen (2006)-research two!
Tested RF predictions of sex difference in aggression using natural experiment (questionnaire). Imagined scenario- male uni students= more likely to respond to gossip by physical aggression whereas females turn group against rival
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Wrangham and Peterson (1996)
Supported DMH- chimps- killed all males +some females in rival territory- gained pleasure inflicting pain- dopamine reward pathways evolved for motivation of normal survival drives may be activated-crime stats support that humans do this 2
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Lambert (2009)
Chumash skeletons display signs of violence e.g. skull fractures and spear points. Analysis of tree rings suggest violence among Chumash escalated in drought. supports RF explanations- aggression triggered by competition for scarce resources
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Manuck et al (2000)
110 men showed association between abnormalities in MAOA gene and aggressiveness and impulse control. Knockout mouse model also found to be aggressive (MAOA=inactive). Warrior genes selected for= aggression.
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Bandura 1973
Alternative explanations for aggression- social learning models. Children learn aggressive scripts that guide aggression. Filtered through self regulating belief (normative beliefs)-thus RF explanations = reductionist
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Card 2

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Ethnographic research into actual behaviour found that boys typically engage in physical aggression e.g.hitting whereas girls are less overt e.g. negative gossip, ostracism, criticism etc.

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Owens et al (2000)

Card 3

Front

Tested RF predictions of sex difference in aggression using natural experiment (questionnaire). Imagined scenario- male uni students= more likely to respond to gossip by physical aggression whereas females turn group against rival

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Supported DMH- chimps- killed all males +some females in rival territory- gained pleasure inflicting pain- dopamine reward pathways evolved for motivation of normal survival drives may be activated-crime stats support that humans do this 2

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Chumash skeletons display signs of violence e.g. skull fractures and spear points. Analysis of tree rings suggest violence among Chumash escalated in drought. supports RF explanations- aggression triggered by competition for scarce resources

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