Evolutionary Explanations

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  • Created by: Liss.
  • Created on: 02-06-14 19:24
EEA
Environment in which a species first evolved - 2 million years ago in the African Savannah
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Early Diets
Plants and animals that were part of the natural environment. Pref for fatty foods would have been adaptive for survival and to find the next meal. Concerned with nutrition, often eat food high in calories - not as plentiful (distinct pref)
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Importance of calories - Gibson and Wardle
Best predictor of 4/5 year olds fave fruit and veg = calorie content. Bananas and potatoes illustrating the distinct pref as this would have been adaptive for ancestors - high energy content
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Meat
Began to include meat to compensate for a decline in plant food due to receding forests 2 million years ago. Fossils illustrate daily diets = animals organs (heart/liver) high energy content.
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Milton
Unlikely early humans could have secured enough nutrition from a plant based diet to grow into the intelligent creatures; amino acids/minerals/nutrients needed for brain growth. Supplemented with marginal, low quality plant based foods = calories
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Cordain
Early humans consumed most calories from sources other than saturated animal fat.
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Abrams
Anthropological evidence = all societies display a pref for meat and sufficient calories were not available from plant based foods
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Stanford
Chimpanzees make a kill - go for the fattiest parts (brain) = energy
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Taste Aversion
Farmers found it was hard to kill rats through poison as they would eat a small amount and if they became ill would avoid it
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Garcia
Rats made ill through radiation shortly after eating saccharin developed an aversion - associated their illness with the saccharin
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Adaptive advantages
Promotes survival as associations are hard to shift, up to 24 hours after consumption. Would not eat it again.
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Medicine Effect
Any food eaten just before recovery is preferred in the future. Distinctive flavour to thiamine deficient rats shortly before a thiamine injection - preference
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Bernstein and Webster
Scapegoat technique - novel tasting. NEOPHOBIA
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Seligman
Biological Preparedness - readiness to learn associations - natural selection to promote survival
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Sandless and Breslin
Bitter taste evolved as a defence mechanism to potentially harmful toxins. 30 people for the bitter taste receptor gene - bitterness of various vegs. Some contained glucosinolates (toxic high doses). sensitive form = 60% bitter - selective avoid.
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Cultural differences
Fine tuned within evolved prefs, e.g. experiences/culture
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Card 2

Front

Plants and animals that were part of the natural environment. Pref for fatty foods would have been adaptive for survival and to find the next meal. Concerned with nutrition, often eat food high in calories - not as plentiful (distinct pref)

Back

Early Diets

Card 3

Front

Best predictor of 4/5 year olds fave fruit and veg = calorie content. Bananas and potatoes illustrating the distinct pref as this would have been adaptive for ancestors - high energy content

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Began to include meat to compensate for a decline in plant food due to receding forests 2 million years ago. Fossils illustrate daily diets = animals organs (heart/liver) high energy content.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Unlikely early humans could have secured enough nutrition from a plant based diet to grow into the intelligent creatures; amino acids/minerals/nutrients needed for brain growth. Supplemented with marginal, low quality plant based foods = calories

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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