Evolution of Government 1536-1547 Part 5

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What was signed in July 1543 but Scottish parliament refused to ratify in December?
Treaty of Greenwich
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What did the Treaty of Greenwich say?
Mary was to remain in Scotland until 10 and then to England to marry Edward. Scots were allowed to maintain existing treaty obligations to France
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Why did the Treaty of Greenwich fail?
The idea of England having more influence in Scotland (through marriage) was too much for the Scots.
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What happened as a result of the Treaty of Greenwich?
Led to renewal of war as Scottish nobles looked to France to aid maintenance of independence from English control
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What happened as negotiations over the Treaty of Greenwich became long and drawn out?
Scotland's military capability rebuilt, efforts made to buy support of leading Scottish political figures failed.
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What did Henry do when he realised in early 1544 that a show of force was necessary?
At ten day campaign resulting in burning of Edinburgh.
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Why was the ten day campaign against Scotland a mistake?
Scottish disunity ended and country was still able to have army in field and provide haven for French troops
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What did Hertford (later Somerset) do in 1544-5?
Took English army on raids in border region
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When was the Rough Wooing?
December 1543 to March 1550
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What was the position of Anglo-Scottish relations at Henry's death?
Scotland more hostile and had lost none of ability to mount effective raids.
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How can Henry's treatment of Scotland in the 1540s be described?
An abject failure, winning position lost at very considerable expense and successors could just hope for a stalemate.
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During the last six years of his life what country was Henry more interested in dealings with than Scotland?
France
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As early as 1541 what had Henry's mind turned to and why?
Possibility of second expedition in France. Probably being wooed by Charles V as possible ally in Habsburg-Valois conflict and Henry wanted to escape depression left by 5th wife.
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What did Henry and Charles V plan to do?
Agreed to lead a large army in person against French in 1544, to co-ordinate march on Paris and not make peace separately.
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What was surprising about the fact that both Charles' and Henry's armies took to the field in 1544?
High failure rate of rulers to keep to treaty obligations
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What did Henry make sure?
That Charles paid dearly for support, agreed eventually in Feb 1543 to join emperor in attack on France
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What was an issue with the joint plan to invade France?
There was nothing to Henry's particular advantage
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What did Henry do in France
Used every excuse to avoid committment to head to Paris, instead marching much of army from Calais base to lay siege to port of Boulogne
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Was the plan to seize Boulogne likely to be spur of the moment?
No - appears that he had intended to make capture of relatively unimportant prize the cornerstone of his campagin
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Did Charles have objectives of his own?
Seems to have had private objectives but as his were pursued once Henry's tactic clear can still say was let down
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How did English forces work in Boulogne?
Quickly! On the very day Boulogne surrendered to English Charles and Francis signed a treaty of peace.
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Why did Henry garrison Boulogne and then majority of army head home?
As with Francis and Charles at peace, France could concentrate forces on England
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Why could France only make small attempt to regain Boulogne initially?
Season too advanced - little warfare in autumn and winter
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What did Henry discover?
Major effort of France to extract revenge waited until late spring 1545. Received intelligence France planning to launch invasion across channel
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What happened in preparation for the threat of invasion in 1545?
Fortifications built in war scares five years ago in southern counties added to and local musters organised
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Why was Francis forced to launch directly into hostile territory?
Had no base on English soil corresponding to Calais
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What did Francis plan to do in his invasion?
Wanted to attack naval defences in Portsmouth in hope huge fleet would allow relatively uncontested disembarkation after destroying English ship.
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What prevented Francis from following his plan?
Incompetent commanders, adverse winds below French ships from coastline and fleets could not engage in battle before supplies of food exhausted and had to retreat
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In what way was a military stalemate reached?
Boulogne's defences held out against all attempts by French to break them
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What was the damage by the attempted French invasion?
Little damage by small raiding party on Isle of Wight and the Mary Rose sank itself.
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Why were both Francis and Henry unprepared to sign a treaty?
Francis would not sign a treaty leaving England with territory and Henry not prepared to hand back Boulogne so soon
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What was signed in June 1546?
Treaty of Ardres
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What did the Treaty of Ardres say?
Francis to regain all territory in eight years time and only then if in meantime large sums paid to English; London expected French gold would not be forthcoming so would be able to keep land
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What is one interpretation of the Treaty of Ardres?
That it was more to Henry's benefit than Francis'
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What is the best interpretation of Ardres?
Neither benefited from war or peace terms.
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What do most criticise Henry for?
Cost of enterprise could never have been matched in territory/prestige and monies promised by Francis were insufficient to meet expense of Boulogne in terms of defence or capture costs.
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What methods did Henry have to resort to to raise money for wars of 1540s?
Heavy taxation and forced loans for more than 1/3 of required amount; immediate hardship to some propertied classes. Less excusable was way in which future mortgaged and confidence in financial ststem undermined.
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Why was Boulogne returned to the French in 1550 by Northumberland?
As part of a campaign to restore financial stability?
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What is the cost of the war with France estimated as?
Over £2mn
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In which way can the seizure of Boulogne be seen as successful?
Assert authority over France and gain land near Calais
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How much was needed to be raised through Parliamentary subsidies for war in this period?
£650,000
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How much monastic lands had to be sold for war?
Over £800,000
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How much was still owed to Antwerp bankers in 1547?
£100,000
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How much had the gold and silver content of the currency fallen by 1547?
50%
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What was debasement?
Used to strengthen stock of bullion, some short term advantage but made money worth less and increased inflation which had already developed due to rise in population
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What was Somerset's stance towards the Scottish?
Continued anti-Scottish policy
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What did the attack on the chantries under Somerset yield?
Only £160,000 (20% of sum raised by dissolution of monasteries)
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What was the total cost of foreign affairs (£2mn) in the 1540s equivalent to?
Total expenditure during a decade of peacetime
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When did Henry die?
28th January 1547
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How long was Henry's death kept secret so his will could be manipulated by his ministers?
3 days
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What did Henry die of?
Kidney and liver failure aggravated by obesity
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What disease it believed Henry may have had?
Type II diabetes
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Who did Henry's final will restore to the throne?
Mary and Elizabeth
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What did the succession act of 1534 declare?
Elizabeth s heir and successor, Mary bastardised
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What did the Succession Act of 1536 do?
Removed Mary and Elizabeth from line of succession and named Elizabeth as a *******
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What did the Succession Act of 1544 do?
Restore Mary and Elizabeth do succession
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Why do many people believe that Mary and Elizabeth were re-added to the succesion?
Due to influence of Catherine Parr who had good relationship especially with Elizabeth
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What did Henry leave instructions for in will to rule during minority?
Regency Council of 16 men to rule equally so one man could not be in sole control
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When was Edward supposed to reach majority according to Henry's will?
Age of 18
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What was the reality regarding the planned Regency Council?
Edward Seymour (Hertford) acted as Protector until his fall
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What was Henry's hope for the Regency Council?
Wanted to avoid greed of nobility and unravelling Henry's success and reputation
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Why was it obvious that the throne would be passed to a minor and what happened because of this?
Health deteriorated rapidly in final years. Will written and revised to prevent dispute and care for son during minority.
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Whose claims were excluded from the succession?
Mary Queen of Scots - wanted to avoid influence from Scotland
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Why did Henry exclude Howard faction from role in Regency Council?
Wanted to preserve royal supremacy , fear they would guide country to Catholicism
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Who did the balance of power lie towards and what was their reward?
Syemour, moderate in religion. Titles and land from dissolved monasteries and Howards.
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What was the requirement for Edward's majority lowered to?
16
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What happened even before Henry VIII was buried?
Orders disregarded.
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What was the state of the country in 1547?
Minority government, economy devastated by war and Church free from papal influence able to choose policy.
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Even before Henry's death key provisions in will were disregarded. However, is it likely the Regency Council would have worked?
No, likely would have been unworkable.
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Why did Seymour and his secretary William Paget (who had custody of will) keep the death secret?
Until had support for Seymour as leader of Council
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When and how was Henry revealed dead?
1st February. Summoned nobility and higher clergy members to Tower, announcing Seymour as leader of Council to be called Duke of Somerset and rewarded with land.
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What did Somerset do?
Created own large Privy Council
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What credentials did Somerset have?
Military leader in campaigns in Scotland.
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What was a warning for the future?
When Sir Thomas Seymour demanded should have governship of King's person when not appointed Regency Council
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How did Somerset placate his brother?
With place on council and appointment as Lord Admiral
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Why was Thomas Seymour executed?
He had schemed to gain favour of Edward but was executed for plotting to marry Elizabeth in 1548
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Since when had Henry VIII been obsessed with the succession?
1527
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What was the change to earlier settlements in Henry's final will?
That if Henry's children died without heirs, throne to his niece Francis Grey
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What did the clause placing Frances Grey as a possible heir mean?
Mary Queen of Scots excluded
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What does the succession show about Henry's wish to preserve Royal Supremacy?
Inclusion of Protestant Greys and exclusion of Catholic Stuart dynasty
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Were the Acts of 1534 and 1536 which had made Mary and Elizabeth illegitimate repealed?
No
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Who was Henry's planned Regency Council of 16 to consist of?
Seymour and 15 of his most trusted allies
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By 1546 what was it clear was the best way to avoid a power struggle on Henry's death?
Give authroity to Seymour and reform faction
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What had secured the position of Seymour and his supporters?
Disgrace of Howard and Gardiner and also adjustments to the will right up to Henry's death
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When was Sir Thomas Seymour executed?
1549
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did the Treaty of Greenwich say?

Back

Mary was to remain in Scotland until 10 and then to England to marry Edward. Scots were allowed to maintain existing treaty obligations to France

Card 3

Front

Why did the Treaty of Greenwich fail?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened as a result of the Treaty of Greenwich?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened as negotiations over the Treaty of Greenwich became long and drawn out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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