Evolution of Government 1536-1547 Part 1

This part contains:
- Background Information
- Cromwell: Finance 

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What is political history about?
Elite men and women who run day to day affairs of country.
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Why is it often difficult to discover why things happened?
While state papers show what happened, lack of evidence is an issue esp. in 16th century. Also, political leaders could manufacture own history.
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What happens to the view of politicians who fail?
They are often unfairly condemned by those who replace them.
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What do revisionist interpretations concentrate on?
Short term changes in constitution, politics and foreign policy by ruling elites
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What does the Marxist interpretation largely concentrate on?
Long-term changes in economy and society
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What did historians believe before the end of the Marxist/Revisionist debate during the 40 years following WWII?
Generally saw mid-16th century as time of political conflict and confrontation in England, period of failure and lack of progress set between 1530s and Elizabeth I.
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What was the period of conflict and confrontation seen to stem from?
Weak political leadership, leading to a contest between Crown and parliament and between Catholics and Protestants
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How is Henry VIII blamed for a time of crisis?
As in his final years he was seen as increasingly weak ruler unable to control factional disputes
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What does new evidence suggest about the idea of a mid-Tudor crisis?
Questioned - no longer popular idea. Reservations about idea of revolution-in-government and although disruptions in day to day running of country machinery of government continued to operate normally
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What is the more recent interpretation of the period 1536-1588?
Can be seen as a time of co-operation rather than conflict and as a time of political and administrative development.
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How has this more recent opinion of the period been developed?
Partially from revised opinions about political leaders such as Henry VIII - despite his failing health and power he preserved the authority of the Crown and unity of the realm
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In which ways can the reign of Henry VIII be seen as creating potential crises?
Break with Rome and his death seen esp. by G.R. Elton as times of crisis. Prospect of minority threat for stability of gov. especially as factions divided over religious issues.
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What was popular unrest increased by?
Rapidity of religious changes from Roman to Anglo-Catholicism between 1534 to 1537 and from this to Protestantism from 1547-50 and from Roman Catholic to Protestant from 1558-70 with many felt way of life under threat
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Who was their tension between in this period as a result of commercial and religious situation? (background not needed)
Husbandmen (tenant farmers renting land) and cottagers (poorer peasant farmers who worked landowner's land for little) and on other side yeomen (richer peasants some as wealthy as gentry). First groups felt that others were exploiting situation
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What were the essentials of English government, as described by Sir Thomas Smith in 1560s?
1) Making law and ordinances 2) Battle and pace with foreign nations 3) Providing of money for maintenance of King and defence 4) Election and choosing of chief officers and magistrates 5) Administration of of justice
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What was the role of Cromwell, as seen by Geoffrey Elton?
Institutionalising functions of government, enhancing role and importance of Parliament, extending royal authority on locaties and transferring administration to Royal Council with bureaucratic 'courts'.
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What was the situation before Cromwell revolutionsided finance?
Traditionally, money was paid into royal household - usually Privy Chamber (80% royal revenues under Henry VII). 1529-32 Henry in control, Privy Purse for matters of state.
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Before Cromwell was there a clear distinction between costs of government and monarch's personal expenditure?
No, recognised that at times of war private income would not cover all needs of defence also expected nobility to provide men and grants of taxation through Parliament
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What were the types of taxation through Parliament?
There was the right to levy custom duties, granted to monarch for life at start of reign adn other main form was subsidy at Parliament's disposal and not always forthcoming in peacetime
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What was the monarch's regular income? (before Cromwell)
Around £100,000
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Where did the monarch's regular income come from?
Rents from Crown lands, fines from justice, custom duties and feudal payments
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What was the largest source of regular income for monarch?
Royal estates which had increased under Henry VII and were worth £42,000 per year in 1509
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What were the royal franchises?
Provided source of income. Principality of Wales and also the Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster whcih reverted to King when no male heir.
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How did the system of wardship provide income for the Crown?
Crown gained control of noble estates while heir a minor, lucrative source of income.
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Up until 1530s who was government finance controlled by?
Monarch personally in their Chamber and Private (Privy) Chamber to receive and spend money
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What was an issue with the traditional system of paying royal income into the Exchequer and what was increasingly done instead?
Slow and inefficient, instead Henry VIII inherited his father's system of chamber finance under which 80% of royal revenues to Privy Chamber instead
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Despite Wolsey's attempts to limit the role who had considerable income over distribution of patronage and King's management of income nad expenditure?
Gentlemen of the Bedchamber
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How can financial management before Cromwell be summarised?
Dependent on formal but cumbersome Exchequer, supplemented by informal arrangements within royal household that varied according to the interests and whims of monarch.
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When did Cromwell seem to have taken over control of government finance and what did he do?
In 1532. He restricted Privy Purse to King's personal expenditure.
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When did Cromwell become Chancellor of Exchequer and Master of the Rolls?
From 1533
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What did the 1534 Act of First Fruit and Tenths do?
Set up an administrative court to collect and manage revenue from changes in Church
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What did the scope of the new administrative court set up by Act of First Fruit and Tenths extend to?
Legal powers similar to those enjoyed by Exchequer but unlike Exchequer used modern methods of collection and accounting.
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Who managed the new administrative court set up by the Act of First Fruit and Tenths and what was it used for?
Cromwell's servant John Gostwick and it was used to finance Cromwell's policies thereafter
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When did Cromwell set up the Court of Augmentations to deal with income from monasteries?
1536
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What became the model for number of new departments established to administer most of Crown's other sources of income (other than Court of Exchequer)
Duchy of Lancaster
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What were the most famous new departments set up?
Court of First Fruit and Tenths and Court of Augmentations
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What did the Court of First Fruits and Tenths do?
The income that would once have gone to the Pope now went to the King
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Did Cromwell's measures improve financial administration?
Yes, greatly.
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What was the Court of Wards (set up 1540)?
Handled income of wardships. Improved financial administration of this source of income.
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What was done to the Exchequer?
Removed from other financial departments.
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What was done due to the need in the 1530s to have an efficient framework to manage revenue?
Men to control courts and each new court having own staff of regional receivers.
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What happened to the Court of General Surveyors and what was Cromwell's role in its use?
It was made permanent and had its own clerical staff. Cromwell did not run this but ensured followed effective procedures.
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What was important about the men who were appointed to the new Courts?
Although Cromwell did not control the courts directly, "he effectively appointed the men who did, and that was sufficient for his purpose." (Loades)
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What was Cromwell's purpose in financial changes?
To create stability and firm foundation for government.
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What was an issue with finance during Henry VIII's reign?
Although had inherited surplus had spent this and more in pursuit of French conquests.
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What became a threat in 1534 and what was done during Henry's reign to deal with this
Threat of Catholic invasion mounted. Increased expenditure on navy, new fortifications along Channel coast and in 1539 appointment of temporary Lord Lieutenants to oversee local defence.
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What happened regarding finance after Henry's death?
Somerset merged Courts with Exchequer and by 1558 only Court of Wards and Duchy of Lancaster remained separate. Rather than reject Cromwell's methods though, reflected on them
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Why can it not be claimed that Tudor governments were able to finance themselves effectively from 1536 to 1553?
Due to reasons of policy rather than administration. Cromwell's work to some extent undone by his fall.
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Was it likely that Cromwell could have restrained the destructive policies of the 1540s?
No as Henry called for these policies, and Cromwell was dependent on Henry's goodwill.
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Were the policies adopted by Cromwell sensible?
Yes, given the circumstances in which he came to power. No reason to believe that Cromwell would have achieved more.
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What happened regarding Cromwell's work?
Work not entirely wasted, nor policies reversed and many of systems and procedures he introduced or encouraged were incorporated into financial administration of later Tudor monarchs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is it often difficult to discover why things happened?

Back

While state papers show what happened, lack of evidence is an issue esp. in 16th century. Also, political leaders could manufacture own history.

Card 3

Front

What happens to the view of politicians who fail?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do revisionist interpretations concentrate on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the Marxist interpretation largely concentrate on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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