Evolution and Genetics

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  • Created by: beanie36
  • Created on: 14-05-18 21:34
Adaption
As a noun, any characteristic of an organism that improves its survival and reproduction in its local environment; as a verb, the process by which adaptions are produced.
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Adaptionist stance
The strategy of assuming that the characteristics or behaviours displayed by an organism enhanced ancestral reproductive success, and forming hypotheses about how they did so.
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Allele
An alternative form of a gene or other DNA sequence
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Alloparenting
Parental care provided to offspring that are not the individual's own
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Altruism
Behaviour that has a positive effect on another individual's RS at a cost to the actor's RS
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Amino acid
Molecular building block of pro
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Analogy
A common characteristic between species as a result of the shared environment (convergent evolution)
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Anisogamy
Sexual reproduction involving gametes of different sizes
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Asexual reproduction
Reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes from different individuals
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Association study
A study in which the frequency of alleles is compared in a sample of individuals with/without a particular phenotypic characteristic
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Australopithecines
Extinct homonins found in Africa between 4 and 1 million years ago
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Baldwin effect
An interaction between learning and genetic evolution, in which the capacity of the animal to learn allows genetic adaptations to be selected for, which would not otherwise be able to evolve
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Base
the nucleotide units in the DNA chain (ATCG)
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Base pairing
the principle governing how bases on one strand of DNA bind to bases on the other
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Bateman's principle
The principle that males gain more reproductive success from each additional mating partner than females do, and males have higher variance in RS
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Brachiation
Locomotion through trees by swinging from the arms
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Broad-sense heritability
A heritability estimate that includes all sources of genetic influence, that is additive, dominance and epistatic
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Catarrhines
The monkeys and apes of the Old World
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Central dogma of genetics
The idea that changes in DNA sequence can lead to changes in proteins, but changes in proteins cannot change the sequence of DNA
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Chromosome
DNA-bearing structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells - consist of DNA wound around histone proteins
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Classical conditioning
A form of associative learning where a response that was initially made to one stimulus comes to be made to another when repeatedly presented together
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Co-dominant
Of two alleles, when one copy of each is present, both are expressed in the phenotype
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Classical genetics
Genetics before the knowledge of DNA
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Codon
A sequence of three adjacent bases in DNA or RNA that encodes a specific amino acid
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Coefficient of additive genetic variance
A statistic estimating the amount of additive genetic variation in a population that affects a specific phenotypic trait
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Coefficient of relatedness
The probability that the alleles which two individuals have at a locus are identical bby descent
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Convergent evolution
The process whereby a similar characteristic evolves independently in different species due to the same selection pressures
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The strategy of assuming that the characteristics or behaviours displayed by an organism enhanced ancestral reproductive success, and forming hypotheses about how they did so.

Back

Adaptionist stance

Card 3

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An alternative form of a gene or other DNA sequence

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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Parental care provided to offspring that are not the individual's own

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

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Behaviour that has a positive effect on another individual's RS at a cost to the actor's RS

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