Evolution

What did Hippocampal lesions in rats lead to/
Impair conditioning to contextual cues
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What does hippocampal damage in humans lead to?
Amnesia
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What do Rats studies tell us ?
Which neural systems are key
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What is a unique source of evidence for the role of hippocampus?
In learning and memory
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What are birds and mamals hippocampus volume?
Enlarged for food storing species
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What can the hippocampus do?
Change in size in response to experiences
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What is Darwinian theory?
The characteristics of an organism have precise functions, these are selected for it they allow the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully
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What isnt part of the hominid family?
The gibbon
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What is functionalism?
A belief that characteristics of living organisms perform useful functions
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How is the principle best understood?
A biological phenomenon is to try and understand its useful functions for the organism
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What is natural selection?
The process by which inherited traits that confer a selective advantage (increase an animals liklihood to live and reproduce) become more prevalant in a population
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What is a mutation?
A change in the genetic information in the chromosome of sperm or eggs which can be passed on to offspring: provides genetic variability
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What is a selective advantage?
A characteristic of an organism that permits it to produce relatively more offspring
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What is evolution?
GGradual change in the structure and physiology of species generally producing more complex organisms as a result of a natural selection
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What is an example of natural selection?
Grey squirrels can digest acorns whereas red squirrels can not, grey squirrels carry a virus which is more deadly to red squirrels, red squirrels breed less under pressure
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What are the galapogos islands?
High number of endemic species, Darwin noticed mockingjays differed between islands, took samples of finches for analysis
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What are the mechanisms of natural selection?
Role of environment, genetic drift and speciation and some mutations have a selective advantage
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what did Huxley suggest?
birds were the descendents of dniosaurs, dinosaurs have been discovered to have been feathured
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What were the first two periods ?
Pennslyvanian and Permian
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When were Dinosaurs around?
Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods
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When were the dinosaurs extinct?
At the end of the cretaceous period
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When were humans begining?
During the Cenozoic period
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What were the earliest mammals?
small noturnal predators that fed on insects
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When did the first hominids appear?
In Africa
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Where did they appear?
In dense tropical forests but in direr woodlands and in the savana, grasslands studded with clumps of trees and populated by large herbivorous animals and their predatrs
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When did they first leave africa?
1.7 million years ago
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What was the first man was called?
Homoerectus
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What was the second man called?
Homoneandethall
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What was the current man called?
Homosapiens
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What is the closest living relative other than hominoids?
Chimpanzees, gorilla and organutans
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What does DNA analysis show?
genetically there is little difference between the four species, humans and chimps share 99% of their dna
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What is human brain evolution?
Increases in overall brain volume and bodysize ratio but sie is not everyhting, changes in neocortex size cmpared to non human animals slow maturational process
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What happens in late adolescence?
human brain reach adult size
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What does the brain grow to?
4 times the weight of newborn brains
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What is neoteny?
The process of maturation allowing more time for growth an important development of large brains
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Card 2

Front

What does hippocampal damage in humans lead to?

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Amnesia

Card 3

Front

What do Rats studies tell us ?

Back

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Card 4

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What is a unique source of evidence for the role of hippocampus?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What are birds and mamals hippocampus volume?

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