Evidence Base for Panic Disorder Treatments

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What is the cognitive theory of anxiety?
A preoccupation with the concept of danger, and an underestimation of personal ability to cope. People with ADs misinterpret situations as being more threatening than they actually are.
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What is the anxiety equation?
Anxiety ∝ (perceived likelihood x perceived awfulness) / (perceived coping + perceived rescue factors)
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What are the automatic reactions of encountering anxiety?
Heart racing, blushing, sweating etc.
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What are the strategic reactions of encountering anxiety?
Safety behaviours and information processing biases.
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What is the two factor model of anixety?
Phobia acquired via classical conditioning, and fear reduction via avoidance of feared stimuli (negative reinforcement).
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What factors are involved in the interacting systems model (5)?
The environment, cognition (thoughts), affect (feelings), physiology, behaviour.
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Why are benzodiazapines not recommended for individuals with panic disorder?
They are associated with less good outcomes in the long term.
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What are the NICE recommended interventions from most to least effective (3)?
Psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, self help.
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What is the cognitive model of panic?
Internal/ external trigger ---> Perceived threat ---> Anxiety ---> Physical/ cognitive symptoms ---> Misinterpretation ---> Anxiety...
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What are some cognitive techniques used in CBT for panic disorder (4)?
Review of recent panic attacks, identify and challenge evidence for misinterpretation, substitute more realistic alternatives, restructure images.
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What are some behavioural techniques used in CBT for panic disorder (4)?
Including feared sensations to demonstrate true causes of panic, dropping safety behaviours, entering feared situations to disconfirm beliefs, exposure to anxious situations.
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What are the principles behind exposure?
People typically flee anxiety provoking situations at the time of peak anxiety. If they can ride it out and anxiety drops, new learning will take place, breaking the associative link between stimuli and anxiety symptoms.
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What is the cognitive cause of panic attacks?
Panic patients are more likely to interpret bodily sensations in a catastrophic way. Activating there will produce anxiety/ panic.
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What is the cognitive theory of how panic disorder can be alleviated?
Reducing catastrophic misinterpretations will reduce panic attacks.
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What three factors are included in the tripartite model?
Anhedonia, arousal and general distress.
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Card 2

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What is the anxiety equation?

Back

Anxiety ∝ (perceived likelihood x perceived awfulness) / (perceived coping + perceived rescue factors)

Card 3

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What are the automatic reactions of encountering anxiety?

Back

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Card 4

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What are the strategic reactions of encountering anxiety?

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Card 5

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What is the two factor model of anixety?

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