Eukaryotic Organelles

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Description: Plasma (cell surface) Membrane
Found on animal cell surfaces and inside plant and cell walls and Prokaryotic cells. Made of lipids and protein.
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Function: Plasma (cell surface) Membrane
Regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Receptor molecules allow responses to chemicals such as hormones.
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Description: Cell Wall
Rigid structure that surrounds plant cells. Mainly made of cellulose (carbohydrate).
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Function: Cell Wall
Supports plant cells.
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Description: Nucleus
Large organelle surrounded by a (double membrane) nuclear envelop containing pores. It contains chromatin (made from DNA and proteins) and the nucleolus.
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Function: Nucleus
Controls the cell's activities by controlling DNA transcription. Pores allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nucleolus makes ribosomes.
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Description: Lysosome
Round organelle surrounded by a membrane with no internal structure.
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Function: Lysosome
Contains digestive enzymes that are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane. These enzymes can be used to digest invading cells or break down worn out cell components.
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Description: Ribosome
Small organelle that floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the R.E.R. It is made up of proteins and RNA. It is not surrounded by a membrane.
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Function: Ribosome
Site where proteins are made.
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Description: Centriole
Small, hollow cylinders made of microtubules (tiny protein cylinders). Found in animal and some plant cells.
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Function: Centriole
Involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division.
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Description: Flagellum
Eukaryotic cells that are longer than cilia. Stick out from the cell surface and are surrounded by the plasma membrane. Inside, they have two microtubules in the centre and nine pairs around the edge.
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Function: Flagellum
The microtubules contract to make the flagellum move. They are used like outboard motors that propel cells forward (e.g. when a sperm cell swims).
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Description: Cilia
Small, hair-like structures on the surface membrane of some animal cells. Cross-Section: They have an outer membrane and a ring of nine protein microtubule pairs with two microtubules in the middle.
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Function: Cilia
Move substances along the cell surface. This is made possible by the microtubules.
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Description: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. The surface is covered with ribosomes.
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Function: Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Folds and processes proteins that are made in the ribosomes.
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Description: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. The surface is not covered with ribosomes.
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Function: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The synthesis and processing of lipids.
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Description: Vesicle
A small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane. Some are formed by the Golgi apparatus or E.R while others are formed at the cell surface.
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Function: Vesicle
Transports substances in and out of the cell via the plasma membrane. Also between organelles.
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Description: Golgi Apparatus
A group of fluid-filled flattened sacs that are membrane bound. There are often vesicles seen at the edges of the sacs.
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Function: Golgi Apparatus
It processes and packages new lipids and proteins. It also makes lysosomes.
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Description: Mitochondrion
Oval-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner is folded to form cristae. On the inside is the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration.
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Function: Mitochondrion
Site of aerobic respiration where ATP is produced.
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Description: Chloroplast
Small, flattened structure found in plant cells. It is surrounded by a double membrane and has thylakoid membranes (internal membranes). These membranes are stacked up in some parts to form grana which are linked together by lamellae.
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Function: Chloroplast
Site where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts of photosynthesis happen in the grana and others in the stroma (thick fluid found in the chloroplasts).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Receptor molecules allow responses to chemicals such as hormones.

Back

Function: Plasma (cell surface) Membrane

Card 3

Front

Rigid structure that surrounds plant cells. Mainly made of cellulose (carbohydrate).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Supports plant cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Large organelle surrounded by a (double membrane) nuclear envelop containing pores. It contains chromatin (made from DNA and proteins) and the nucleolus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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