Ethnicity: Labeling and pupil identities (Internal Factors)

Why are black pupils a focus group in sociology?
Statistics suggest that this group under achieves the most
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What did Gillborn and Youdell study?
The impact of teacher labeling on black pupils and labeling in school
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Why were teachers quicker to discipline black pupils?
Because they had racialised expectations
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What did the teachers misinterpret their behaviour as?
Threatening or challenging authority
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How did the pupils respond to this?
Negatively as they felt that teachers underestimated their ability and picked on them
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What did Gillborn and Youdell conclude?
That the conflict between white teachers and black pupils stems from racial stereotypes and not the pupils actual behaviour
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What did Gillborn and Youdell find in the A*-C economy?
That teachers focus on the students they believe will get a grade C at GCSE-educational triage or sorting
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What did the teachers negative stereotypes about black people lead to?
They were more likely to be placed in lower sets or streams
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Who believed that Asian pupils are also a victim of teacher labeling?
Cecile Wright
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What did Cecile Wright study?
A multi-ethnic primary school, which shows that Asian pupils are victim to labeling
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Despite the schools apparent commitment to equal opportunities, what did Wright find?
That teachers held ethnocentric views-they took for granted that British culture and standard English were superior
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What did the teachers assume?
That the Asian pupils would have a poorer grasp of English, so left them out of class discussions or used simplistic, childish language when speaking to them
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When did Asian pupils feel isolated?
When teachers expressed disapproval of their customs or when they mispronounced their names, teachers saw them as a problem they could ignore
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What was the effect of this?
Asian pupils, especially girls were marginalised and were prevented from participating fully
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What does Louise Archer believe?
That teachers have a dominant discourse and this therefore leads to them defining pupils from ethnic minorities as lacking the characteristics of the ideal pupil
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What is the ideal pupil identity?
A white, middle-class masculinised identity, with a heterosexual sexuality. This pupil is seen as achieving the right way through natural ability and initiative
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What is the pathologised pupil identity?
An Asian deserving poor feminised identity either asexual or with an oppressed sexuality. this pupil is seen as 'plodding'. they are conformist and culture bound-over achiever. succeed through hard work rather than natural ability
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What is the demonised pupil identity?
A black or white working-class, hyper-sexualised identity. this pupil is seen as unintelligent and peer led. they are seen as a culturally deprived under achiever
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What does Archer believe that pupils are more likely to be seen as?
Demonised or pathologised
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What happens as a result of this?
Teachers treat pupils of ethnic minorities differently in terms of how they might challenge behaviour
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What does this impact on?
Their feelings around school and ultimately their achievement
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Overall, what does labeling depend on?
Whether the teacher has racialised expectations
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What might universities do?
Publish results based on ethnicity to show that they don't have negative stereotypes
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What did Mirza study?
ambitious black girls who faced teacher racism
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What did she find?
That racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious from the advice they gave them about careers and options
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What is the colour-blind?
Teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged
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What is the liberal chauvinists?
teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived and who have low expectations of them
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What is the overt-racists?
teachers who believe black students are inferior and actively discriminate against them
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Why do Mirza's findings contrast Fuller and Mac an Ghail?
as the girls were selective about who they asked for help and by not taking part in lessons they restricted their opportunities to do well and were therefore unsuccessful with their strategies
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What did Sewell study?
Boys secondary school
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What did he find?
That many teachers had a stereotype of black machismo which sees all black boys as rebellious, anti-authority and anti-school
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What were the rebels?
These were the most visible and influential group, they were often excluded from school and they conformed to the stereotype of the black macho lad
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What were the conformists?
The largest group, they were keen to succeed and accepted the schools goals, they were anxious to avoid being stereotyped by their teachers and peers
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What were the innovators?
Pro education but anti-school, they valued educational success but did not seek the approval of teachers, they conformed only as school work was concerned
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What were the retreatists?
Small minority of individuals who were disconnected from both school and black subcultures
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Who did Fuller study?
A group of black girls in year 11 in a London comprehensive school
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Key points from Fuller?
Girls were high achievers-untypical, channeled anger into education, didn't seek approval from teachers, conformed for school work, relied on themselves, friends from low streams, saw teachers as racist
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What was the pupil response- Fuller?
Maintained a positive self-image by relying on themselves, they also relied on impartial exams
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Conclusions- Fuller?
Pupils can still succeed when they don't conform, negative labeling doesn't always lead to failure and there was no self-fulfilling prophecy
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Who did Mac an Ghail study?
Black and A Level Asian pupils at a sixth form college
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Key points- Mac and Ghail?
Students didn't accept the labels, their response was dependent on their ethnic group, gender and the nature of their former school
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What was the pupil response- Mac an Ghail?
Girls found that their experience of previously attending an all girls school gave them a greater academic commitment that helped them to overcome negative labels at college
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Conclusions- Mac an Ghai?
Labeling does not inevitably produce a self-fulfilling prophecy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did Gillborn and Youdell study?

Back

The impact of teacher labeling on black pupils and labeling in school

Card 3

Front

Why were teachers quicker to discipline black pupils?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the teachers misinterpret their behaviour as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How did the pupils respond to this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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