Ethnicity, Crime and Justice

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 26-01-16 11:25
For an introduction to ethnicity, crime and justice, what ethnic groups are over-represented in Official Crime statistics?
-Blacks, -Lesser extent Asians
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For an introduction, in contrast, what do self-report studies show about ethnic groups?
They show that whites, 'mixed' ethnic groups and blacks have similar rate of offending, -Asians groups are less likely to offend,
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As an introduction, what do victim surveys show about offending of blacks?
They show that blacks can be overpresented a offenders and is often intra-ethnic (within ethnic groups)
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What do BCS data show about blacks and police stop and searching?
They show blacks are 8 times and Asian 2 times more likely to be stopped and searched by the police than whites,
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Under which act are Asians how many times more likely to be stopped and searched?
-Terrorism Act, -3 times more likely,
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Overall, how do ethnic minority communities view they police and why?
-They view the police with a lack of trust, -They feel they are over-policed, under-protection and have limited faith in the police,
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What are the three reasons why ethnic minorities are more liked to be policed and stopped and searched?
1) Police racism, 2) Ethnic differences in offending, 3) Demographic factors,
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For reason 1, what is the name of police racism and its definition?
-Institutional racim, -Police procedures, practices and culture excludes or disadvantages non-white. This can be often unintentional but the nature of police work leads to assumptions that influence attitudes of police,
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What report found evidence of institutional racism in which policing authority due to what case?
-Macpherson Report, -Metropolitan Police -After the death of Stephen Lawrence
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What sociologist found that many police officers stereotype ethnic minorities as what? What does this lead to?
-Philips and Bowling, -They stereotypes ethnic minorities as criminals or dangerou terrorists, -This leads to deliberate tareting/ discrimination for stop and search,
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For reason 2, ethnic differences in offending, what do higher rates of stop and search reflect?
They reflet higher rates of offending amongst ethnic minority groups (given their proportion of the population)
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For reason 3, why can demographic factors lead to more policing and stop and seaching carried out?
-Some ethnic minority groups are more likely to be part of the demographic that is likely to be stopped and searched
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Give some demographic factors that are likely to be stopped and searched?
-Young, -Unemployed, -Living in inner city areas
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How many more times are blacks more likely to be arrested?
4 times more likely than whites,
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Once arrested, what are what two ethnic groups less likely to recieve?
-Black and Asian, -Less likely to recieve a caution,
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Give one reason why blacks and Asians are more likely to be arrested and less likely to be given a caution?
Minority groups may be les likely to admit to an offence (therefore not possible to be let off with a caution),
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For prosecutions, what are the CPS likely to do with ethnic minority crimes?
CPS is more likely to drop cases against ethnic minorities,
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What is a reason for this?
Evidence is weaker and based on stereotypes,
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For convictions, what are blacks likely to be convicted?
Black and Asians less likely to be found guilty
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What is a reason for why black and asians are less likely to be found guilty?
Discrimination- Police/ CPS bring in weak case against ethnic minoritie,
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What ethnicity is more likely to recieve a custodial sentence, even when controlled for what?
-Blacks are more likely than whites or Asians, -Even when controlled for the seriousnes of offence and previous convictions,
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How many times more are blacks likely to be in prison than whites?
5 time more likely,
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What sentences are what ethnicities more likely to have?
-Blacks and Asian offenders, -More likely to be sering longer sentences,
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What is a reason for why blacks are more likely to have custodial sentences and more likely to be in prison?
As they are more likely to opt out for a jury trial (as opposed to magistrates) where sentences are higher,
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What two theories attempt to explain ethnic difference in offending?
-New (critical) criminology/ Neo-Marxists, -Left Realism,
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For newo-Marxists, do they accept or reject OCS and why?
They reject OCS, -They see them as a social construction,
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What sociologist argues what about black criminality?
-Gilroy, -Argues black criminality is a myth and created by racist stereotypes,
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What does Gilroy argue about over-representation in OCS?
Gilroy argues that powerful ethnic minority groups are over-represented in crime statistic because of police bias (over-policing),
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However, what do they accept about ethnic minority crime explanations?
They argue that it needs to be explained in terms of causal processes as well.
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Give a example of a causal process explanation from Gilroy about ethnic minority crime?
-Gilroy sees ethnic minority crme as a form of political resistance against a racist society,
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For the causes and social construction of ethnic minority crime and deviance, what criminologists have attempted to explain 'black mugging'?
Hall et al
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What event did Hall et al study in terms of causes and social construction factors?
Toxeth riots
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What did Hall et al argue were the wider causes of the Toxeth riots and black mugging?
The margialising effect of long term unemployment
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What did Hall et al argue were the immediate cause of the Toxeth riots?
Police racism ,
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What did Hall et al argue what was socially constructed by the media and what is it?
Moral panics- The media causes public fear by exaggerating an sensationalising stories about one social group or one deviant act,
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What did the media's focus on the panic of 'black mugging' draw attention away from and an example?
The crisis of capitalism E.g. high employment and inflation and social problems such as Northern Ireland crisis and student protests,
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What did moral panics serve to do and justify?
-It served to divide the working class on racial grounds, -Justify increasing policing to suppress opposition,
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Who has given new criminology/ Neo-Marxism empirical support and why?
-BCS, -Shows that males are 8 time more likelu to be stopped and earched than white males,
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Who has theoretically criticse new criminology and why?
-Black Feminists, -For failing to consider issues surrounding black women' experience of crime,
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Give an example black feminist an her views on courts?
-Player, -Notess that black women are treated more harshly by the courts than white women,
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For left realist explanations of ethnic differences in offending, do they accept or reject official crime statistics and why?
-Accept OCS, -They don't believe that powerless ethnic minority groups are significantly over-represented,
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However, what do left realists recognise about the problems of OCS?
-They recognise statitics have problems in terms of police bias,
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What do left realists argue are the three causes of ethnic minority crime and deviance?
-Marginalisation, -Relative deprivation, -Subcultures,
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For marginalisation, what sociologists argued what about late modernity?
-Young, -Argued growing numbers of black (and some white and Asian) youths are finding themselve marginalised or economically excluded,
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What reasons does Young give for why black youths may find themselves marginalised?
Due to racism, insecurity and family instability,
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However, what do left realists argue about this cause in isolation>
Although marginalisation is an underlying pressure for ethnic minorities, it isn't itself a direct cause,
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For relative deprivation, what does was Young's link between crime and relative deprivation?
He argues crime is most likely to follow when individuals or group feel relatively deprived,
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What does Young maintain about blacks feelings due to relative deprivation which can sometime result in crime?
He maintains that blacks often feel worse off than comparable groups and that these feelings of social injustice result in crime,
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For subcultures, what subcultures do left realists claim emerge in all ethnic minorities as a response to what?
-Criminal and deviant subcultures, -As a group response to marginalisation and relative deprivation,
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What do subcultures allow for groups of individuals?
To feel socially included and serve to facilitate crime and deviance by making such behaviour seem acceptable,
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What crimes do criminal subcultures deal in and why?
They may deal in drugs, commit theft and robbery to close the 'deprivation gap',
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What crimes do conflict subcultures engage in and why?
-They may engage in violence and rioting due to frustrations of marginalisation,
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Who has given empirical support for left realists?
Jones et al
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What survey did Jones et al complete and what did he find?
-Local Islington crime survey, -Found that levels of victimisation and fear of crime were high, especially among blacks and Asian groups,
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For theoretical criticism, who has criticised left realists and why?
-Right realists, -They reject the left realist focus on social and economic causes of ethnic minoirty crime, -Instead they concentrate on inadequare social control,
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What right realist sociologist suggest what is the key cause of black crime?
Murray, -He sees the growth of the underclass as the key cause of black crime,
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What types of family structures do black children usually have and what does Murray argue about the effect on children?
-High proportion of black children from fatherless single parent families, -It can lead to inadequate socialisation and control as they lack a male role model and authority figure,
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Murray argues young black males turn to who on the street and gain what through crime rather than what?
-Young black males turn to criminal role models, -Gain status through crime rather than supporting their families through steady jobs,
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For ethnicity and victimisation, how many racial incidents did OCS suggest happened each yeat and what were they mainly?
-61,000 racial incidents, -Mainly damage to property or verbal harrassment,
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How many racial incidents did the BCS suggest happened each year?
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How many racial or religiously aggravated offences did OCS suggested happend and what were they?
42,600, -Mostly harassment,
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What ethnicity did BCS suggest were more likely to be victims of a range of crimes?
Mixed ethnicity groups, blacks and Asians,
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What are two reasons for racial incidents?
-Racism and discrimination, -'Relative deprivation downwards',
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Give an example of a crime showing 'relative deprivation downwards'?
'hate crimes' against asylum seekers,
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What factors other than ethnicity explain differences for all crimes?
Violent crime is linked to being young, male, unemployed and living in inner city areas,
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What are the three effects of victimisation?
1) Psychological harm, 2) Fear, 3) Lack of faith,
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For the fear effect of victimisation, the does BCS data show about who fears crime the most?
It shows that mixed ethnic groups, blacks and Asians fear crime more than whites,
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Whole communities can be affected by what?
They can be affected by racially motivated hate crimes,
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For the lack of faith effect of victimisation, ethnic minority groups have little faith in what
-Little faith in the criminal justice system and dealing effectively with racially motivate crime,
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What are the two responses by the police to victimisation?
1) Under-protection 2)Situational crime prevention
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How might the police under-protect victims?
-The police often ignore, fail to record or investigate racist incidents adequately
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Give some examples of how the police help with situational crime prevention?
Fireproof doors and letterboxes, self-defence campaigns,
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To conclude, why do left realists offer a strong theory?
As they recognise that ethnic minority crime can't be explained away as a social construction but requires a causal explanation,
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However, all sociological theories, including left realists, need to look more closely at what crime?
Asian crime,
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What report suggests what about Asian crime?
-Unreported Britain, -Suggests crime and deviance is growing in some Asian communities,
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What do they locate the causes of Asian crime to?
Feelings of deprivation, boredom, loss of respect for religion and changes in cultural identity,
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Card 2


For an introduction, in contrast, what do self-report studies show about ethnic groups?


They show that whites, 'mixed' ethnic groups and blacks have similar rate of offending, -Asians groups are less likely to offend,

Card 3


As an introduction, what do victim surveys show about offending of blacks?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do BCS data show about blacks and police stop and searching?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Under which act are Asians how many times more likely to be stopped and searched?


Preview of the front of card 5
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