ethics - issues and debates

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  • Created by: katie
  • Created on: 29-05-15 16:10
list 5 ethical guidelines for humans
consent, competence, right to withdraw, debriefing, deception
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describe consent
consent is when the participants agree to partake in the experiment. real consent is where they are aware of what they are agreeing to and this consent cannot be swayed by money or the power of the researcher
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describe right to withdraw
must be given this right throughout the experiment and have the right to withdraw their set of results at the end of the study.
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describe competence
researcher must be suitably trained and experienced to carry out the study and be able to foresee any potential participant harm
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describe deception
deception should be avoided wherever possible, especially where upon knowing the true nature of the experiment the participant would become distressed
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describe debriefing
a full debrief must be given to all participants as soon as possible, informing them of the aim of the experiment and what will be done with the results
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list 5 ethical guidelines for animals
number of animals, caging, where animals gathered from, suffering and anesthesia and euthanasia
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describe 'number of animals'
the minimum number of animals possible should be used to minimise suffering but still enough to maintain reliability and generalisability to other animals in the chosen species
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describe 'caging'
between testing, the animals should have enough room to move around and have sufficient water and food. overcrowding in cages should be avoided as it can cause distress for the animals
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describe 'where animals gathered from'
least likely species of animal to experience pain and distress should be chosen and animals should be selected with attention to their past experiences of experimentation and whether or not they have been held in captivity
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describe 'suffering'
minimum suffering possible should be caused to the animals
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describe 'anesthesia + euthanasia'
both must be used wherever possible in order to reduce suffering and prolonged suffering in the case of euthanasia
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ROSENHAN: consent
no consent, informed or otherwise, from participants (staff and psychiatrists). if they had given informed consent this would have compromised the results of the study.
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ROSENHAN: right to withdraw
gave none because were not aware that they were part of the experiment. if it had been given, i predict many people would have withdrawn due to the distressing nature (feeling inadequate at diagnosis) of the experiment.
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ROSENHAN: debriefing
there was no mention of a full debrief being given to the participants
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ROSENHAN: deception
deceived the training hospital staff about there being pseudo-patients that would try to gain admittance. deceived the psychiatrists into thinking that the pseudo-patients were having auditory hallucinations.
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ROSENHAN: psychological harm
psychiatrists doubted their own profession and their abilities after the study so you could say that they aftermath of the study was very traumatic for them
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MILGRAM: deception
deceived into thinking the confederates were genuine participants, that the draw was not fixed & that the aim of the experiment was to look into learning but it was to look into obedience
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MILGRAM: debriefing
gave the participants a full debrief at the end of the study and included a questionnaire asking if they are glad they took part and most said yes
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MILGRAM: psychological harm
harm to all participants by knowing that they would have administered lethal shocks to innocent people - would be very difficult to live with this knowledge
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MILGRAM: right to withdraw
technically gave this right but participants were verbally prodded to continue 4 times 'the experiment requires that you continue'
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MILGRAM: consent
all participants gave consent but it was not informed due to the deception. if they had known the true nature of the experiment it is expected that a lot of them would not have taken part.
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aim of milgram's study
looked to see how far people would go to obey authority if it involved harming another person
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procedure of milgram's study
40 middle aged men. fixed draw to decide learner + teacher. administer test shock. shocks ranging from 15-450v for each incorrect answer to questions. learner in a different room to the participants.
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results of milgram's study
two thirds of the sample continued to the highest volts (450v). all continued to 300v.
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conclusion of milgram's study
ordinary people will follow orders from an authority figure to the extent of killing someone
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2 advantages of human ethical guidelines
helps makes participants feel safe so more likely to take part in studies, ensures that society's moral standards are maintained and that past research mistakes are not repeated
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2 disadvantages of human ethical guidelines
deception is sometimes necessary to ensure valid findings e.g. milgram, they restrict the procedures of certain studies e.g. made to give consent when researcher doesnt want pps to know they are taking part for validity reasons
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2 advantages of animal ethical guidelines
clear guidelines means vulnerable animals are protected and cannot be used, appeals to today's moral standards and so reduces opposition from people over use of animal studies
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2 disadvantages of animal ethical guidelines
cant use endangered animals so some research is impossible to carry out, expensive and time consuming getting the right licenses and qualified researchers as well as caring for the animals in between tests
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Card 2


describe consent


consent is when the participants agree to partake in the experiment. real consent is where they are aware of what they are agreeing to and this consent cannot be swayed by money or the power of the researcher

Card 3


describe right to withdraw


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Card 4


describe competence


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


describe deception


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