Ethics

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The Catholic Catechism - mans final purpose
''mans cheif purpose is to glorify God and enjoy him forever''
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facts of natural law
deontological, universal and absolute theory
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main aim of natural law?
''do good avoid evil'
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Primary Precepts?
W - orship God O - rdered Soceity R - eproduce L - earn D - efend the innocent
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2 points about perfecting our purpose
Humans are all naturally good as they were created by god. Humans need to use their intelligence and reason to fulfil God's purpose for them.
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what are Real and Apparent Goods?
humans can be tempted away from natural law by APPARENT goods eg adultery. REAL goods help acheive the ideal world god wants eg marriage
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what are Interior and Exterior acts?
acts which are good in themselves
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what is Casuistry?
hard line approach e.g NO abortion even if mothers been *****
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What is double effect?
when the intention is good but has a bad side effect e.g roman catholic doctor
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what is propotionalism?
when moral laws should never be broke expect when theres a PROPORTIONATE reason to do so
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Weaknesses of Natural Law
assuems god created universe and moral law with it not fair for athiests. for this theory to work you sort of have to believe in god.
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Strengths of Natural Law
attempts to link ethics to the natural structure of the universe. It is not based on emotions or feelings, based on the mind working out what is natural. Roman catholic church accept NL.concentrates on goodness rather than right/wrong
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what is Summun Bonum?
the greatest good you will recieve but outside this world
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what is the Hypothetical imperative?
something you mustdo if you want to achieve the right end e.g you have to revise in order to get good grades
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what is duty?
for kant it meant obeying the moral law
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What is good will?
highest form of good
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kant said about duty
''duty should only be done for the sake of duty and only alone''
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kant argues that we should not...
let emotion or feelings intefer with duty. actions arent moral if you do something that benefits you. morality is a rational choice of actions based on a disinterested sense.
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qoute on good will
''good will shines forth like a precious jewl''
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what is reason?
seperates us from animals, enables us to act against our instincts and desires and feelings.
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what is rational moral agents
we can make our own decisions
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what does kant believe man should be ruled by?
his head (reason) an NOT his heart (feelings compassion) OR his lower body (animal insects)
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kant uses summun bonum because?
humans should be rewarded if we follow the moral law
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what is categorical?
something you must always do because it is the right thing
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universaleisability?
something that everything is able to do
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treat people as means not ends
should never be used or be treated as things (commodities)
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what does every human have duty for?
treat others well and as equals. resepect others rights. never manipulate others of use them to achieve your own good purposes
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act as though you live in a kingdom of ends?
when we should see ourselves as member of one comminity
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the principle of utility?
is about making the world a better place producing the greates good?
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Jeremy Bentham said...?
we should maximise our pleasure and minimise our pain
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benthams democratic principle highlights..?
''everyone to count for one and no one to count for more than one''
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how does bentham weigh up pleasure v pain?
hedonic calculus. Remotness Purity Richness Intensity Certainty Extent Duration
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advantages to utilitarianism?
practical considers the quantity. equal rights democratic principle. values everyones pleasure equally. tries to measure likely outcomes
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qoute that which values everyone pleasure equally?
''pushpin is the same as poetry''
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disadvantages to utilitarianism?
hard to apply HC. leaves the minority out. Swine ethics is the lowest sort of pleasure e.g 9 rapists 1 women
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what did John Stuart Mill believe?
happiness is more valuable than pleasure.
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what is the difference between higher order and lower order pleasures?
higher order e.g poetry, classic music lower order pleasures e.g sex drugs
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Act Utilitarianism
Bentham- when you conisder the single act
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Rule Utilitarianism
Mill- considers what the outcome will be
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what does Henry Sigwick believe?
Motive utilit. cant treat people differently because they like other things
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what does RM Hare believe?
Preference Utilit. right thing to do is to maxamie the satisfaction of preferences for each person involved
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what does Peter Singer believe?
Impartial Spectator. should be based on our the best interest of individuals
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''Better a human disatisfied than a pig satisfied''
John Stuart Mill
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harm principle? Mill
freedom should not infringe on others. if your freedom is harming others you should stop!
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Card 2

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facts of natural law

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deontological, universal and absolute theory

Card 3

Front

main aim of natural law?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Primary Precepts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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2 points about perfecting our purpose

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