Philosophy and Ethics

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 04-10-15 16:59
What did Plato say about moral knowledge?
It comes from a different form (another world)
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True or false. Socrates said we're not born with morals?
False. He said we are born with morals.
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What philosopher said we can learn from good people and become good ourselves?
Aristotle
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Relativism states right or wrong depends on the nature of our ...
Society
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What can make some people think human rights are wrong?
Religious views
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What is meant by agape?
Love for mankind
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What is situation ethics/normative relativism?
Acting the way you see fit due to the relative situation
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What is (Divine Common Theories)?
To do what the sacred text says
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What is (Ethics of Conscience)?
Conscience tells us what is right and wrong
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What is (Ethical Egoism)?
Only looking out for yourself
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What is (Ethics of Duty)?
Doing what is right or wrong by doing your duty
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What is (Ethics of Respect)?
Human interactions should be governed by the rules of respect
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What is (Ethics of Rights)?
Ethics are rights; everybody's equal
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What is (Utilitarianism)?
Reduce suffering and increase pleasure or happiness which contains a lot of self sacrifice.
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What is (Virtue Ethcis)?
Developing individual character. Good people make good decisions.
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What is (Deontology)?
Rightness and wrongness of actions and not the rightness or wrongness of the consequences.
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Who devised the theory of Natural Law?
Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas
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Natural order of our world is determined by ... ...
Supernatural powers
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What is Natural Law not rooted in?
Duty or an externally imposed law
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What is Natural Law rooted in?
Human nature and our search for genuine happiness and fulfilment
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Natural Law is based on nature interpreted by ... ...
Human reason
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Where did the earliest theory of Natural Law first appear?
Stoics who believed that God is everywhere and in everyone
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NL explains that humans have a divine ... within them which works in accordance with ...
Spark, nature.
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What are the strengths of Natural Law?
Clear cut approach to morality and establishes common rules, basic principles of preserving human life, reproduction, learning and living in society, common in all cultures (reasonable) and concentrates on goodness of human character.
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Moral decision making isn't done by reason alone. Aquinas also involved what?
Imagination, body, emotions, passions and practical wisdom.
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All things we require for happiness, health and friends are morally ...
Good
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What are the weaknesses of Natural Law?
Difficult to relate complex decisions to basic principles in practice, depends on defining what is good but this commits naturalistic fallacy, Natural Law is interpreted differently due to different cultures and religions.
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Who saw Aquinas's views of human nature as unholistic and simplistic?
Peter Vardy and Herb Grosch
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Who argued against Aquinas's belief of a single human nature common to all societies?
Kai Neilson
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Who said that defining good means commiting naturalistic fallacy?
G.E. Moore
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Situation Ethics sates you must consider ... and that a moral decision is correct if it is the most ... thing to do.
Agape, loving
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Why did Situation Ethics become more popular?
People have turned away from the Church and society has changed.
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Who acknowledged the changes to people's thoughts on religion and sought an ethical solution to bring people back to Christian decision making?
Joseph Fletcher and John Robinson
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What did Robinson say about Situation Ethics?
"Man come of age"
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Who suggested God could be understood as 'the ground of our being'?
Robinson and Paul Tillich
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What are Fletcher's four working principles of Situation Ethics?
Pragmatism, relativism, positivism and personalism.
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What is pragmatism?
What is practicle in the situation
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What is relativism?
Love is the only thing relevant to all situations
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What is positivism?
Love is the most important criterion of all
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What is personalism?
Situation Ethics puts human beings and their concerns at the centre of morality unlike laws and rules which often seem to be detrimented.
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Which philosopher presented a deontological argument?
Immanuel Kant
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What did Kant say is the difference between moral and normal statements?
Normal statements are either priori analytic or posteriori synthetic and moral statements are priori synthetic
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What is meant by priori analytic?
Statements are knowable without experience and verifiable through reason.
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What is meant by posteriori synthetic?
Statements are knowable through experience and verifiable through experience.
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What is meant by priori synthetic?
You can know something is moral without experience and it can be checked with experience.
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What did Kant say about good?
Something is good only when someone carries out their duty to do it.
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Kant specified that moral actions are ... actions that must be done in all circumstances there are to be no ... attached
Absolute, conditions
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Kant believed moral actions can't be ... because they become too ...
Hypothetical, subjective
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Kant also believed if an action is to be entirely ..., it must be universal and if it is to be made properly the human must be ... and assume all others are autonomous
Objective, autonomous
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What does autonomous mean?
Total control
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What are the three key formulations of Kant's categorical imperative?
Universalisability, treat people as an ends in themselves, not as means to an end and pretend you live as a member of (and leader of) the Kingdom of Ends.
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What is universalisability?
Always perform actions that may be made rules for everyone.
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True or false. Kant noted that if we are to do our duty then we must be able to be rewarded for our actions.
True
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What is the summum bonum which Kant described?
The place where our happiness and our virtue (good actions through duty) come together.
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What does summum bonum translate to in Latin?
The highest good
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Why is the summum bonum only achievable in the afterlife?
It can't be achieved on Earth as we see bad people living happy lives and good people living unhappy lives.
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What three things did Kant postulate were neccessary for his theory to work but which rationally must exist?
We must be free to be able to make decisions, afterlife or immorality for us to achieve the summum bonum and God must exist to determine whether he shall bring us to the afterlife or not.
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What are the strengths of Kantian Ethics?
Universal so everyone is treated equally and given equal value, human life is given particular value, rule to follow, promotes good will and no references to future or consequences.
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What are the weaknesses of Kantian Ethics?
Doesn't account for complexities of life, doesn't account for any duty we may have for certain people (family) and some would say sometimes life has to be sacrificed to save others.
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Why doesn't Kantian Ethics account for the complexities of life?
Universalisability cannot work as no two situations are the same.
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What is an ethical absolute?
A command that is true for all time, in all places and in all situations.
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What does moral absolutism state about eternal moral values?
They are applicable everywhere
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Absolute ethics allows ... to be made about the actions of others
Judgements
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Where do absolute laws come from for a theist?
God
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Where to absolute laws come from for an agnostic or atheist?
They are a priori in nature
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What is an unchanging and perfect absolutist position set by the deity or deities?
Ten Commandments
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What is graded absolutism?
Christians who believe in a hierachy of absolutes
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What is the hierachy of absolutes?
Duty to God, duty to others and duty to property.
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What are the two absolutist theories of Normative Absolutism?
Natural Law and Kantian ethics.
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True or false. Socrates said we're not born with morals?

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False. He said we are born with morals.

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What philosopher said we can learn from good people and become good ourselves?

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Card 4

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Relativism states right or wrong depends on the nature of our ...

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Card 5

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What can make some people think human rights are wrong?

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