Ethical Principles

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Relativism
One person's opinion, especially on a moral issue, cannot be any better than someone else's opinion
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Cultural Relativism
The concepts of right and wrong arise from cultural beliefs and that we should be tolerant of differences between cultures
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Kant's Categorical Imperative (or universability principle)
We should act in a certain way only if we would be happy for the whole world to act in the same way
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Altruism
Put other people's interests before your own
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Egoism
It is right to act according to motives of self-interest
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'Golden Rule'
We should treat other people in a away in which we would wish to be treated ourselves ('do as you would be done unto')
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Anthropocentric
(Human-centred) view, traditional view (summed up by Aristotle) that animals have no moral status because, unlike us, they are devoid of reason
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Ecological View
We should concentrate not on individual rights, but on the overall importance of diversity and the inter relations of all things on the planet
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Negative Utilitarianism
The least amount of suffering for the greatest number
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Sentient Utilitarianism
This is a type of Utilitarianism that gives equal consideration to all sentient beings and not just humans in particular
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Average Utilitarianism
Suggests that we measure the utility of a population by calculating the average utility (finding out the utility of all people and then dividing the amount of people) of that population
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Total Utilitarianism
An alternative view to average utilitarianism and gets around mere addition paradox by stating that it is best to measure happiness/ utility by the total utility/happiness that a society has
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Motive Utilitarianism
Incorporates the motives people have for their actions and gives weight to this when deciding if an action is morally right or wrong
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Rule Utilitarianism
Concerns itself with general moral rules that you should follow when making decisions
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Act Utilitarianism (or Case Utilitarianism)
Requires each cause to be taken individually and appropriate calculations made for each one of them
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Two - Level Utilitarianism
Level One - using Rule Utilitarianism (based on our intuitions) because it is efficient (in both time and effect). Level Two - however, is using Act Utilitarianism when a situation requires more thought and moral critical reflection
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The concepts of right and wrong arise from cultural beliefs and that we should be tolerant of differences between cultures

Back

Cultural Relativism

Card 3

Front

We should act in a certain way only if we would be happy for the whole world to act in the same way

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Put other people's interests before your own

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

It is right to act according to motives of self-interest

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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