Ethical issues

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What are ethical issues?
A dilemma between what the researcher wants to do in order to conduct the research and the rights of the participant.
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Deception
This prevents participants from giving fully informed consent so they may find themselves in research again their wishes. Can be avoided by telling them the true aim in the debriefing.
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Protection from harm
Participants have the right not to be harmed when taking part. They should leave the research in the same physical and psychological way in which they entered it. Can be done by reminding them of their right to withdraw and debriefing.
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Informed consent
Participants should be told about the aims and nature of the research so give their fully informed consent and lack of it means they haven't agreed to be in the research, breaking ethical guidelines. Can be avoided by presumptive consent.
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Ethical guidelines
The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a professional organisation that is responsible for developing a set of ethical principles designed to protect the participant. They are guidelines however, and not laws.
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Ethical guidelines: Confidentiality
Participants have the right to confidentiality and data must be kept anonymous. However, some data may lead an individual to be recognised, especially in unusual cases.
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Ethical guidelines: Consent
Participants under 16 must have parental consent.
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Ethical guidelines: Colleagues
Researchers are responsible for the ethical conduct of their colleagues.
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Ethical guidelines: Deception
Should be avoided and information must not be withheld from participants. If they are misled then they are unable to give their fully informed consent and may make people distrustful of psychologists in the future.
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Ethical guidelines: Debriefing
After the study in completed, participants are interviewed and should be told the real aim and nature of the research. The aim is to restore them to the state they were in before the study started.
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Ethical guidelines: Giving advice
Participants should be shown appropriate sources of help if they are in any way insure.
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Ethical guidelines: Observational research
Participants should not be observed in situations where they would not normally expect to be observed.
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Ethical guidelines: Protection from harm
Participants should leave the study in the same physical and psychological state in which they entered it. They should not be exposed to more risk than they would in everyday life. This includes avoiding effects such as lowered self-esteem.
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Ethical guidelines: Right to withdraw
Participants have the right to leave the study at any point regardless of whether they have been paid or not. They also have the right to refuse permission for their data to be used. However, loss of data in this way may bias the study's findings.
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Dealing with ethical issues: Debriefing
After the study in completed, participants are interviewed and should be told the real aim and nature of the research. The aim is to restore them to the state they were in before the study started.
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Dealing with ethical issues: Ethical guidelines
The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a professional organisation that is responsible for developing a set of ethical principles designed to protect the participant. They are guidelines however, and not laws.
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Dealing with ethical issues: Ethical committee
Groups of professionals and lay people must approve a study before it begins. They have to weigh up the study's costs and benefits.
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Dealing with ethical issues: Presumptive consent
A random sample of the population are told about the research, including any deception involved. They are then asked whether they would agree to take part in a study. If they do, it is assumed that the real participants would agree as well.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

This prevents participants from giving fully informed consent so they may find themselves in research again their wishes. Can be avoided by telling them the true aim in the debriefing.

Back

Deception

Card 3

Front

Participants have the right not to be harmed when taking part. They should leave the research in the same physical and psychological way in which they entered it. Can be done by reminding them of their right to withdraw and debriefing.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Participants should be told about the aims and nature of the research so give their fully informed consent and lack of it means they haven't agreed to be in the research, breaking ethical guidelines. Can be avoided by presumptive consent.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a professional organisation that is responsible for developing a set of ethical principles designed to protect the participant. They are guidelines however, and not laws.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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