Eruption Case Studies: 2011 vs. 2008

(MEDC) Iceland eruption was in
2010
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Occurred on what plate boundaryr
Constructive
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Name the 2 plates
N American and Eurasian
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What is Iceland?
A Hot Spot
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Spell the name of the volcano
Eyjafjallajokull (Eyjaf-jalla-jokull)
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Was the volcano monitored?
Yes, carefully
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Warning signs?
Changes in Hot Springs temperature and Land Deformation
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(Primary Effects) Where did the eruption occur in the volcano?
Under the ice cap
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What did this cause?
Explosive power vaporised the ice
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Magma was cooled crreating
Glass like shards
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How far was ash carried into the atmosphere?
9km
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(Secondary Effects) What did the melted ice cause? and what effect?
Flooding - washed away roads and infrastructure
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Ash mixed with melt water to form?
Lahars
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Ash fall had a depth of
10cm
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What did this do to the agriculture?
Killed crops (less food for cattle), tainted the water supply
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Effect on tourism?
Actually increased tourism, however no European visitors due to the No Fly Zone
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What direction did the ash travel? what effect did this have on air travel?
South East in the Jet Stream, shut down air travel over fears of damaging the engines
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How many passengers stranded?
7 million
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Airline industry total losses?
£1.2 billion over the 6 days
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Who benefitted from the stranded tourists?
Hotels, Trains etc, stayed for longer and spent more money
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(Responses) Who were evacuated?
Icelandic locals in villages most at risk of flooding
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How did they prevent bridges from being destroyed?
Diverted the water flow away
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What other safety precautions did they take?
Closed the air space
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What occurred as a result of the eruption concerning air travel?
Research into engine design, formed a safe level of ash concentrations to fly in - helpful in future eruptions
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(LEDC) What part of Chile did the eruption take place in?
Chaiten
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What year?
2008
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What type of plate margin?
Destructive - Nazca sub ducted under South American
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When was last eruption?
9,400 years ago
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Monitored properly?
No, due to it being dormant/nearly extinct
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(Primary Effects) How far did ash travel into atmosphere?
17km (c. to 9km Iceland)
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What did the falling ash cause?
Suffocation of farm animals
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What did the ash combine with to form Lahars?
A passing thunder storm
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What did the lahars cause?
Blockage of rivers leading to flooding
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How many deaths?
1 - caused by stress
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What % was flooded? What % was completely destroyed?
90% flooded, 30% completely destroyed
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(Secondary Effects) What happened to air travel?
Hundreds of flights cancelled over Argentina
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What did the ash fall close?
Schools and Highways
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What happened to the groundwater supplies?
Became contaminated with ash
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The damage to what hampered rescue operations?
The airport and harbour
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Lahars deposited mud to a height of? and what did this cause the River Chaiten to do?
1m thick, carve a new path right through Chaitne
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(Responses) How many residents evacuated?
4,000 - by Navy
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What did Chaiten officials distribute?
Fresh water and face masks
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How large was the exclusion zone around Chaiten?
50km
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Monthly stipend of how much to victims?
Around $2,200
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90 day what for Businesses?
90 day freeze of loan payments to help businesses
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What was created as a direct result of the volcano?
Volcano Disaster Assistance Program - monitoring and prediction of subsequent eruptions
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Occurred on what plate boundaryr

Back

Constructive

Card 3

Front

Name the 2 plates

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Iceland?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Spell the name of the volcano

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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