Erosion Processes and Slumping etc.

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Corasion (abrasion)
Constant grinding action of sediment carried in waves. Eg) sand/shingle/boulders over rock surfaces erodes the shore platforms and cliff bases
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(doesn’t directly erode the coast) Erosion of beach material itself in the wave as sediment is constantly knocked together in the water
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Biological Erosion
Invertebrates (limpets burrowing worms and barnacles drill holes in rock or smooth it over (create small depressions)
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(solution) Sea water spray erodes certain rock (limestone) Evaporation of salt & crystal production expands pores and cracks causing them to disintergrate
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Hydraulic Action
Pockets of air are tapped in cracks in the rock causing them to weaken and break up due to the increasing pressure
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Rock Quarrying
Jointed rocks are pulled away from the cliff by wave action
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Freeze thaw weathering
Water gets into cracks in the rock. Temperature drops and the water freezes, expanding and putting pressure on the rock. When the water melts, the pressure is released and the rock cracks further
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Salt Crystallisation
Saline water gets into crack in the rock. Water evaporates leaving slat crystals which grow over time exerting pressure on the rock causing it to crack
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Certain minerals in the rock absorb water and cause it to swell and eventually crack
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Hydrogen ions in water react with minerals in rock causing them to break down to form clay minerals Water changes chemical composition and size of minerals in rock = less resistant to weathering
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Rocks react with oxygen (air/water) causing rocks to chance colour and disintegrate more easily
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Limestone dissolved by carbonic acid in sea water Forms a solution of weak carbonic acid Process speeds up when temperatures decrease because cold water has more CO2
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Biological Weathering (Animals)
Animals burrow/ create nests in the rock forcing it apart
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Biological Weathering (plants)
Trees and plants grow in cracks in rock. Roots force rocks apart
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Human Activity
Leisure activities increase pressure on coastal paths increasing cliff erosion
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Soil Creep
Very slow downhill movement of individual rock particles
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Individual rock fragments fall off cliff face (often due to freeze thaw)
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Saturated soil flows downhill. Often triggered by heavy rainfall
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Rapid movement of detatched slats of rock down a side plane
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Rotational Slip/ Slumping
Large areas of a cliff falling at once, quickly due to gravity Leaves behind a curved surface on cliff face
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Card 2




(doesn’t directly erode the coast) Erosion of beach material itself in the wave as sediment is constantly knocked together in the water

Card 3


Biological Erosion


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Card 4




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Card 5


Hydraulic Action


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