epithelial and connective tissue

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  • Created by: cat
  • Created on: 27-04-14 12:06
what are the cell junctions called?
tight junctions, adhernes junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes and gap junctions
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features of tight junctions
strands of trans-membrane proteins fuse together at the outer surfaces of cells,it seals the passageways between cells and is fund in the stomach, intestine and bladder
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features of adhernes junctions
plaque protein anchors membrane proteins to cytoskeleton. cadherins are a transmembrane glycoprotein that joins adjacent cells and helps resist cells separating under mechanical stress such as peristalsis
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features of desmosomes
like adherens contain plaque protein and cadherins the plaque attaches to intermediate filaments in cells (keratin)
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features of hemidesmosomes
these don't link to adjacent cells but attach cell to extracellular fluid , they contain integrin trans-membrane glycoproteins (not cadherins) and anchor to basement cells
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features of gap junctions
cells connected by connexons (fluid filled transmembrane holes made from connexins) allows the diffusion of ions and small molecules, it provides electrical coupling between cells ( important for muscle contraction)
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what are the functions of epithelia?
1) form selective barriers 2)provide secretory surfaces 3) provide protective surfaces
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what does the basement membrane consist of?
it consists of two extracellular layers 1) basal lamina, contains laminin and collagen 2) reticular lamina contains fibroblasts which secrete collagen
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There are two types of glandular epithelium. what are they? and what is their function
Endocrine and Exocrine their function is secretion
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what is the difference between endocrine and exocrine?
ENDOCRINE secretions enter interstitial fluid and diffuse directly in to the blood stream. EXOCRINE secretions are released in to a duct which then empty on to a surface epithelium or lumen for example sweat or salivary glands
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where can u find 1) pseudostratified columnar 2) simple cuboidal 3) simple columnar 4) starified squamous 5) Glandular 6) simple squamous 7)transitional 8) stratified columnar
1) trachea 2) kidney 3) digestive organs 4)skin 5)salivary glands 6)lungs 7)bladder 8) mammary ducts
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what is the functions of connective tissue?
-bind tissue together -support and strengthen tissue -protect and insulate internal organs -compartmentalize and transport -energy reserves and immune responses
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what is connective tissue derived from?
mesenchyme
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what are the features that all connective tissue have?
sparse cells and extracellular matrix
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what is extra cellular matrix?
non-cellular materiallocated between and aroound the cells contains protein fibers and ground substance (fluid,semifluid,gelatinous or calcified
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what is the numerous cells of connective tissue and what does it secrete?
fibroblasts which secrete protein fibers such as collagen,elastin and riticular fibers
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what are the other common connective tissues and their functions?
chondrocytes-make cartilaginous C.T, adipocytes-store triglycerides, osteocytes-make bone and blood
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What are the classes of mature connective tissue?
loose,dense,cartilage,bone and liquid
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what are the sub types in loose connective tissue?
Areolar connective tissue, Adipose connective tissue and reticular connective tissue
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Areolar connective tissue...
used to attach skin and under lying tissues and as a packing between glands,muscles and nucleus
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Adipose connective tissue....
located in subcutaneous layer, around organs and joints- reduces heat loss, is a store of energy and serves as padding
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Reticular connective tissue ...
network of interlacing reticular fibers and cells, form's a scaffolding used by lymphoid tissues such as the spleen and lymph nodes
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Dense irregular connective tissue.....
mainly contains fibroblasts and collagen fibers randomly arranged- provides strength when forces are pulling from many different directions
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Dense regular connective tissues...
comprise of tendons, ligaments and other strong attachments where the need for strength along one axis is mandatory
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Elastic connective tissue ...
mainly fibroblasts and freely branching elastic fibers- allows stretching for certain tissues i.e arteries
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Cartilage...
A tissue with poor blood supply that grows slowly when injured or inflamed. There are three types of cartilage hyaline,fibro and elastic
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hyaline cartilage .....
is the most abundant cartilage covers the ends of long bones and parts of the ribs,nose,trachea, bronchi and larynx, it provides a smooth surface for joint movements
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Fibrocartilage ...
Has thick bundles of collagen fibers is a strong, tough cartilage. fibrocartilage disc's in the invertebral spaces and in knee joints support huge loads up an down the long axis of the body
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elastic cartilage...
consists of chondrocytes located in a thread like network of elastic fibers- makes up malleable part of the outer ear.
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Card 2

Front

features of tight junctions

Back

strands of trans-membrane proteins fuse together at the outer surfaces of cells,it seals the passageways between cells and is fund in the stomach, intestine and bladder

Card 3

Front

features of adhernes junctions

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

features of desmosomes

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

features of hemidesmosomes

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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