Epistemology - Perception 2 Markers

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Direct Realism
Physical objects exist independently of our minds and of our perceptions of them and the immediate objects of perception are mind-independent objects and their properties.
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Indirect Realism
We perceive physical objects, which exist independently of the mind, indirectly via sense-data which are caused by and represent physical objects.
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Berkeley's Idealism
All that exists are minds and ideas. What we think of as physical objects are, in fact, bundles of ideas. The immediate objects of perception are ideas, mind-dependent objects. Esse est percipi - to be is to be perceived.
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Mind-independent
Not depending on a mind for existence or definition. According to realism, physical objects are mind-independent.
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Mind-dependent
Depending on a mind for existence or definition, eg ideas are mind-dependent.
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Sense-data
Mental images or representations of what is perceived,the 'content' of perceptual experience. If sense-data exist, they are the immediate objects of perception and 'private', mind-independent mental things.
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Common Sense
The basic perceptions or understandings that are shared by many (most) people.
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External World
Everything that exists outside of our minds.
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Argument from Hallucination
Against direct realism: the possibility of hallucinations that are subjectively indistinguishable from a veridical perception means that we don't immediately perceive physical objects, but sense-data.
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Argument from Illusion
Against direct realism: illusions can be 'subjectively indistinguishable' from veridical perception, so we see sense-data, and not physical objects, immediately.
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Relational Property
A characteristic that something has only in relation to another thing, eg 'being taller than Bob'.
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Primary Quality
Properties that are 'utterly inseparable' from the object, whatever changes it goes through, even if it is divided into smaller and smaller pieces. The object has these properties 'in and of itself'. eg extension, shape, motion, solidity
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Secondary Quality
Properties that physical objects have that 'nothing but powers to produce various sensations in us'. eg colours, sounds, tastes, smells, temperature
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Solipsism
The view that only oneself, one's mind, exists. There are no mind-independent physical objects and there are no other minds either.
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Unperceived Objects
Objects that exist when not perceived by anyone.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

We perceive physical objects, which exist independently of the mind, indirectly via sense-data which are caused by and represent physical objects.

Back

Indirect Realism

Card 3

Front

All that exists are minds and ideas. What we think of as physical objects are, in fact, bundles of ideas. The immediate objects of perception are ideas, mind-dependent objects. Esse est percipi - to be is to be perceived.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Not depending on a mind for existence or definition. According to realism, physical objects are mind-independent.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Depending on a mind for existence or definition, eg ideas are mind-dependent.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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