Epidemiology& Veterinary Public Health

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Public Health
Public Health is the sum of all contributions to the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of humans through an understanding and application of veterinary medical science.
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Medical Epidemiology
Clinical observations acknowledging importance of circumstances and environment of cases
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Demographic epidemiology
Use of death counts and comparison of rates
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Theoretical epidemiology
Theories about spread of epidemics- before recognition of micro-organisms as a cause of disease
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Zoonoses
Diseases transmitted between animals and humans
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Epidemiology
Study of diseases at the population level in a systematic way, involving the formulation of hypothesis which are tested on the basis of experimental or observational data
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Endemic Occurence
Usual or constant presence of disease in a population
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Epidemic Occurrence
Occurence of a disease to a level in excess of the expected (i.e. endemic) level
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Sporadic Occurrence
Single cases or clusters of cases of disease which are normally not present in an area. The disease occurs irregularly and, in general, not frequently
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Veterinary Epidemiology
The study of disease, productivity and welfare in animal populations. Holistic approach to animal health and disease. Measure two elements: exposure and outcome.
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Necessary causes
must be present for a disease to occur
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Sufficient causes
set of minimal conditions and events inevitably producing disease.
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Counts
number of individual animals which are infected, diseased or dead
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Fractions
number of individual animals which are infected,diseased or dead/number of animals capable of experiencing infection, disease or death.
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Ratio
the relative size of two quantities expressed by dividing one by other e.g. a/b
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Proportion
a ratio whose numerator is included in the denominator e.g. a/a+b
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Rate
A ratio that represents the magnitude of change in the occurrence of an event of interest e.g. infection, disease, death) with respect to a population at risk over time
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Prevalence
The total number of individuals who have a disease at a particular time divided by the population at risk of having the disease.
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Incidence
The number of new cases of a disease that occur in a defined/population within a specified period of time.
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Cumulative incidence
Proportion of disease-free individuals developing a given disease over a specified period of time. Dimentionless. Ranges from 0-1. Always requires a period referent.
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Incidence density
instantaneous potential for change in disease status per unit time at time t, relative to the size of the disease free population at time t. Number of new cases/population time at risk
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Attack rate
Number of new cases/initial population at risk. It is a subtype of cumulative incidence (despite its name a probability, not a rate) used when the period at risk is short.
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Crude mortality rate
Analogous to incidence density with death due to specific causes as the outcome of interest.
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Case specific mortality rate
Analogous to incidence density with death due to specific causes as the outcome of interest.
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Case fatality rate
Animals dying for a specific condition/Animals with the condition (despite its name it is a probability not a rate). It is used to describe the impact of epidemics or the severity of acute diseases.
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Field studies
Conducted in the animals natural environment. Animals exposed to all environmental influences including both known and unknown factors. Highly relevant to clinical practice.
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Clinical Trials
Systematic studies conducted in order to establish the effects of prophylactic or therapeutic procedures
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Reference Population
Population that will benefit if the treatment is effective.
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Study population
Population in which the trial is conducted
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Type 1 error
declaring a difference where none exists
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Type 2 error
declaring no difference where a meaningful one does exist
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Simple Randomization
e.g. tossing a coin. Should be undertaken after eligible units have been identified. Normally done using random numbers.
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Block Randomization
Randomization is done within blocks of units to ensure that within a block of N animals the same number of subjects are allocated to each treatment.
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Selection Bias
Animals included in the trial systematically differ from animals not included. To avoid: Appropriate selection of reference and study population and random allocation.
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Confounding Bias
A risk factor for the outcome is also associated with the treatment. To avoid: random selection of the treatments
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Information Bias
Information on the different outcomes is recorded in a different way for treated and non-treated animals. To avoid: Blinding.
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Censoring Bias
When there is differential follow up across time for subcohorts, and the reason for censoring is a determinant of the outcome. Ensuring equal follow up in both groups.
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Cross sectional studies
Studies in which data on the factor and outcome of interest in the population being studied are recorded at the same time. Individuals are selected without regard to exposure or disease status.
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Cohort Studies
Studies in which two or more groups within a population are defined according to their exposure or non-exposure to a risk factor of interest and followed through time to determine the frequency of occurrence of the outcome of interest
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Risk
Probability that an event will occur at a given time during a given period.
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Risk factor
Factor associated with an increase in the probability of occurence of an outcome of interest.
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Prediction
Estimating the likely future frequency of disease among comparable individuals
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Diagnosis
Presence/absence of a risk factor increases/decreases the likliehood that disease is present
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Causality
In some cases, risk factors are causally associated with the condition
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Prevention
Reducing the exposure to the risk factor can be used to prevent disease, even if the disease mechanism is unknown.
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Precision
Degree of fluctuation of a test series based on a sample around a central measurement.
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Gold Standard
Means by which one can assess whether a disease, or any other event of interest, is truly present or not
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Predictive Values
Probability that a test for a particular animal correctly identifies the condition of interest.
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Positive Predictive Value
Probability that an individual found positive to a test is truly affected by the disease or outcome of interest
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Negative Predictive Value
Probability that an individual found negative to a test is truly free of the disease or outcome of interest
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ROC Analysis
Description of the performance characteristics of a diagnostic test (Sensitivity and Specificity) for the different cut-offs (operating conditions).
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Specificity
Ability of a test to correctly detect individuals free of the disease or infection of interest.
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Sensitivity
Ability of a test to correctly detect individuals with the disease or infection of interest.
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True Prevalence
Based on the true disease status of the individuals.
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Apparent Prevalence
Estimate of the prevalence based on the means used to identify disease.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Clinical observations acknowledging importance of circumstances and environment of cases

Back

Medical Epidemiology

Card 3

Front

Use of death counts and comparison of rates

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Theories about spread of epidemics- before recognition of micro-organisms as a cause of disease

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Diseases transmitted between animals and humans

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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