Enzymes and digestion

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  • Created by: Issy
  • Created on: 22-12-13 15:13
What elements connects the mouth to the stomach?
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What is the oesophagus adapted for?
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What is the oesophagus made up of?
A thick muscular wall
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What is the stomach made up of?
A muscular sac with an inner layer
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What is the role of the stomach?
To store and digest proteins
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What do the two different glands do in the stomach?
1) produce enzymes which digest protein. 2)produce mucus
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Why does one gland in the stomach produce mucus?
To prevent the stomach being digested by its own enzymes
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What is the small intestine made up of?
A long muscular tube
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Where is the smalll intestines are the enzymes produced?
Its walls and glands
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What are the inner walls of the small intestine folded into? and why?
Villi, to give them a large surface area
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How is the surface area of the villi increased?
By millions of tiny projections, microvillli, on the epithelial cells of each villi
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How does having a large surface area in the small intestine adapted?
For absorbing the products of digestion into the bloodstream
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What does the large intestine absorb?
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Why does food within the small intestine become drier and thicker in consistency and forms faeces?
Because most of the water that is reabsorbed comes from the secretions of the many digestive glands
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What major part of the digestive system is the final secretion of the intestine?
The rectum
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Where are the salivary glands situated near?
The mouth
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How does the salivary gland pass their secretion?
Through a duct into the mouth
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What enzyme does the salivary gland produce?
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What does amylase break down into what?
Strach into maltose
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What structure is large and situated below the stomach?
The pancreas
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What does the pancrease produce?
A secretion called pancreatic juice
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What does pancreatic juice produce?
Protease (digest proteins), Lipase (digest lipids) and amylase (digest strach)
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What are the two stages that take place in digestion in many organisms?
Physical breakdown and chemical digestion
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Name an organism that has physical breakdown and chemical digestion in digestion.
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Give two examples of physical breakdown.
Teeth and muscels in the stomach wall
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Why is physical breakdown important for chemical digestion?
Gives it a large surface area
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What does chemical digestion break down?
large, insoluble molecules into smaller, souble ones.
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What is hydrolysis/hydrolase?
The splitting up of molecules by adding water to the chemical bond that hold them together
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Name the three different types of digestive enzymes.
Carbohydrases, Lipases and proteases
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What does carbohydrases break down what into what?
Carbohydrates into monosaccharides
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What does lipases break down what into what?
Lipids (fats and oils) into glyceroland fatty acids
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What does proteases break down what into what?
Proteins into amino acids
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What is assimilation?
A process where once large food molecoles have been hydrolysed, they are absorsbed into the blood stream via small intestine, they go to different parts of the body where they could become large again and work with tissues and used in body processes
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Card 2


What is the oesophagus adapted for?



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What is the oesophagus made up of?


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Card 4


What is the stomach made up of?


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Card 5


What is the role of the stomach?


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