Enzymes and Digestion

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What are Enzymes?
Biological catalysts made from proteins
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What are proteins made from and what do they do/act as?
Amino acids, ac as structural components such as muscles, hormones, antibodies, catalysts in the form of enzymes
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What is it about an Enzymes shape?
They have a specific shape which allows other molecules (substrates) to fit into it, this is called the active site
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What is the Active Site?
The site on an enzyme where the reactants bind
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What is Amylase?
The enzyme made in the salivary glands and pancreas which speeds up the breakdown of starch into simple sugars
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What happens to enzymes if the temperature is too high?
They denature which means they lose their specific shape and can no longer do their job
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What is usually the optimum PH for enzymes?
PH 7 (neutral)
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What PH does Pepsin work best at?
PH 2
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What is Protease and where is it made?
The enzyme which converts proteins into amino acids and digests proteins, it's made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine
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What is lipase and where is it made?
The enzyme which converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids (digests fats and oils) it's made in the pancreas and small intestine
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What is Bile and what does it do?
Yellowy green liquid made in the liver to neutralise the stomach acid and emulsify fats, breaks fat down into tiny droplets with a bigger surface area for quicker digestion
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Where is Bile stored?
The Gall Bladder
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What are uses of Enzymes in the home and how do they work?
Biological detergents which may contain protein digesting enzymes to break down food stains, fat digesting enzymes to break down oil and grease stains, they are more effective at lower temperatures than other detergents
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What is a use of enzymes in industry?
Proteases are used to pre digest protein in some baby foods, carbohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar syrup, isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup which is sweeter for slimming foods
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What happens during digestion in the Large Intestine?
Excess water is absorbed from foods
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What happens in the small intestine?
The absorption of soluble food
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What are the disadvantages of biological detergents?
If the clothes aren't fully rinsed protease enzymes can remain and digest proteins in the skin causing irritation and allergies
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What are the disadvantages of using Enzymes in Industry?
They are sensitive to temperature and PH changes, so these need to be carefully controlled which can be expensive
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What does Hydrochloric acid in the stomach do?
Kills bacteria in food
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What effect does chewing food have on the digestion process?
The food will be broken down into smaller pieces with a larger surface area for the action of enzymes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are proteins made from and what do they do/act as?

Back

Amino acids, ac as structural components such as muscles, hormones, antibodies, catalysts in the form of enzymes

Card 3

Front

What is it about an Enzymes shape?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the Active Site?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Amylase?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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