Enzymes and Genetics

What are enzymes ?
Catalysts produced by living things
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What is a catalyst ?
A substance which increases the speed of a reaction , without being changed or used up in the reaction
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What do enzymes need ?
The right temp and ph
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What do digestive enzymes do ?
They break down Big molecules into smaller ones
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What does Amylase do ?
Converts starch into sugar
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What does Protease do ?
Converts proteins into Amino Acids
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What does Lipase do ?
Converts Lipids into Glycerol and Fatty Acids 9
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What does bile do ?
Bile Neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats
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What happens inside the large intestine ?
Water is absorbed from food
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What is stored in the Gall Bladder ?
Bile
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What is respiration ?
The process of releasing energy from glucose , which goes on in every cell
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Give the equation for Aerobic respiration
Glucose + oxygen > carbon dioxide + water + energy
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What does Aerobic respiration use up ?
Oxygen
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What does exercise increase ?
Heart rate
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What is used up during exercise ?
Glycogen
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When is Anaerobic respiration used ?
When there is not enough oxygen / Oxygen debt
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What is the equation for Anaerobic respiration ?
Glucose > energy + lactic acid
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Give a way enzymes are used in foods
In baby food , the proteins are pre - digested used enzymes , it makes it easier for the baby to swallow
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Give an advantage of enzymes
They are specific , they use low temps
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Give a disadvantage of enzymes
People can develop allergies from them , expensive
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What are chromosomes ?
Long molecules of DNA
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What does a gene code for ?
A specific protein
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What does Mitosis do ?
It makes new cells for growth and repair , it splits itself to form two identical offspring
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What does Meiosis do ?
It produces cells which have half the normal number of chromosomes
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What does Meiosis involve ?
Two divisions
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What can stem cells be used to do ?
Cure diseases
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Why are some people against stem cell research ?
You should not experiment on embryos as it is a potential human life
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What do your chromosomes determine ?
Whether you are male or female
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What chromosomes do men have ?
X and Y
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What chromosomes do women have ?
X and X
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What do genetic diagrams show ?
All the possible combinations for Gametes / offspring
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What plant did Mendel experiment on ?
Pea plants
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What 3 things did Mendel discover ?
Characteristics in plants are determined by hereditary units ,Hereditary units are passed on from both parents , Hereditary units can be either dominant or recessive
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What is cystic fibrosis caused by ?
A recessive Allele
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What is Polydactyly caused by ?
A dominant Allele
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Give a reason for being against embryo screening ?
Expensive
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Give a reason for being for embryo screening ?
It will stop people from suffering
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What are fossils ?
The remains of plants and animals
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What is extinction ?
It happens when things can evolve quickly enough
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What is speciation ?
The development of a new species
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What does isolation and natural selection lead to ?
Speciation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a catalyst ?

Back

A substance which increases the speed of a reaction , without being changed or used up in the reaction

Card 3

Front

What do enzymes need ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do digestive enzymes do ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does Amylase do ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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