Enzymes and Digestion

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Which big molecules are too big to pass through the walls of the digestive system?
Starch, proteins and fats
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Which small molecules can easily pass through the walls of the digestive system?
Sugars, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids
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What do digestive enzymes do?
They break down the big molecules into the smaller ones
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What does amylase do?
It converts starch into sugars
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Where is amylase produced?
The salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
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What does protease do?
It converts proteins into amino acids
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Where is protease produced?
The stomach, pancreas and small intestine
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What does lipase do?
It converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is lipase produced?
The pancreas and small intestine
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Where is bile produced?
In the liver
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Where is bile stored?
The gall bladder
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Where is bile released into?
The small intestine
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Why is bile alkaline?
So that it can neutralise the hydrochloric acid in the stomach, so that conditions in the small intestine are alkaline
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In what type of conditions do enzymes in the small intestine work best in?
Alkaline conditions
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What is the other function of bile?
To emulsify fats
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Why are fats emulsified?
To give a much bigger surface area of fat for the lipase enzyme to work on - this makes digestion faster
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What are digestive enzymes produced by (in general)?
Specialised cells in glands in glands and in the gut lining
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What do the salivary glands produce?
Amylase in the saliva
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What happens in the liver?
Bile is produced
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What happens in the gall bladder?
Bile is stored there (before it's released into the small intestine)
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What happens in the large intestine?
Excess water is absorbed from food
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What does the stomach do to food?
It pummels the food and breaks it down with its muscular walls
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Which enzyme does the stomach produce?
The protease enzyme, pepsin
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Give the two reasons why the stomach produces hydrochloric acid
1. To kill bacteria 2. To give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work (pH 2 - acidic)
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What does the pancreas do?
It produces protease, lipase and amylase enzymes. It then releases these into the small intestine
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Which enzymes does the small intestine produce and why?
It produces protease, lipase and amylase enzymes to complete digestion
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What also happens in the small intestine?
This is also where the digested food is absorbed out of the digestive system into the blood
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What happens in the rectum?
This is where the faeces are stored
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which small molecules can easily pass through the walls of the digestive system?

Back

Sugars, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids

Card 3

Front

What do digestive enzymes do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does amylase do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where is amylase produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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