Enzymes

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  • Created by: lh1002
  • Created on: 19-06-16 12:49
What are enzymes?
Protein molecules found in all living things. They are biological catalysts- they speed up reactions.
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What does every enzyme molecule have?
An active site, where the substrate joins onto the enzyme.
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What is a substrate?
The molecule changed in the reaction. It has a complementary shape to the active site.
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What happens when enzymes break down the substrate?
The substrate has a complementary shape to the active site therefore fits in. Bonds are then broken and the products break free from the active site.
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What happens when enzymes build up the substrate?
The substrates have a complementary shape to the active site therefore fits in. New bonds are then made and the new product breaks free from the active site.
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What effect does the temperature have on the enzyme?
Enzymes need to work at a specific constant temp to work at their optimum. Change in temp changes the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction. Bonds would be broken which hold the enzyme together which changes the shape of the active site- DENATURED
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What temperature do enzymes in the body usually work best?
37°C
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What do digestive enzymes do?
Break down big molecules into smaller ones. Starch, proteins and fats are too large to fit through the thin walls of the digestive system. Enzymes break these down into much smaller sugars (glucose), amino acids, fatty acids & glycerol.
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What are the digestive enzymes and where are they made?
Amylase (starch), made in the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine; protease (protein, made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine; lipase (fat), made in the pancreas and small intestine
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Where does each digestive enzyme work?
Amylase- mouth and small intestine; lipase- small intestine; protease- stomach and small intestine
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What does bile do?
It neutralises the stomach and emulsifies fat.
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How does bile neutralise the stomach?
The HCl in the stomach makes the pH too acidic for enzymes. Bile is an alkaline so it neutralises the acid and makes conditions alkaline- where enzymes in the small intestine work best.
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How does bile emulsify fats?
It breaks them down into tiny droplets which means the fat has a larger surface area for lipase to work on.
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Where is bile produced and stored?
Produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder.
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What are the advantages of using enzymes in industry?
They are specific- catalyses the reaction you want; work at lower temperatures- less energy so lower costs and pollution; work for a long time; biodegradable- less pollution
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What are the disadvantages of using enzymes in industry?
Some people have allergies to the enzymes- in biological washing powders etc.; can be denatured by small changes in temp or pH; expensive to produce; contamination of the enzyme can affect the reaction.
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Why is having enzymes work at lower temperatures a good thing?
Less electricity is used so less fossil fuels are burned. This means less SO² and CO² is given off to the surroundings therefore less acid rain and global warming.
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What are enzymes used in and why?
Biological detergents because the enzymes used (lipase and protease) are good for breaking down plant and animal matter so good at removing stains.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does every enzyme molecule have?

Back

An active site, where the substrate joins onto the enzyme.

Card 3

Front

What is a substrate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when enzymes break down the substrate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens when enzymes build up the substrate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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