ENVS2 AQA The Lithosphere

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  • Created by: rosie25
  • Created on: 29-03-14 12:42
What does the lithosphere involve?
Crust and upper mantle
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What resources and reserves does it provide?
Physical resources for exploitation, biogeochemical cycles-recycle elements, through soil-growth medium, habitat and location for cycles
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What are mineral resources?
Includes rock and fossil fuels that are removed
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What are some examples of metals and their uses?
Iron-construction, aluminium-packaging, vehicles, copper-cables
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What are some examples of non-metals and their uses?
Sand-builders mortar, gravel-concrete, clay-bricks, tiles, limestone-cement
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How are igneous rocks formed
Plates move- magma is forced up to surface. Igneous extrusion-cools rapidly, fine rocks e.g. basalt. Some may fail to reach surface, large mass of rock, cools slowly, larger crystals e.g granite produced by batholiths
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How are sedimentary rocks formed?
A rock that already exists is broken down by weathering or dissolved. Carried away separated and redeposited.
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What is an alluvial rock?
Carried by flowing water and deposited when water slows e.g. sand
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What is an evaporite?
Water evaporates from mineral-rich solutions then crystallise as solutions became saturated, each mineral saturated at different times so in layers e.g. gypsum
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What is a biological rock?
Dead organic matter-fossil fuels formed from this
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How are metamorphic rocks formed?
Existing rock thats exposed to extreme heat and pressure from nearby igneous activity may change its form e.g. slate formed from shale
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What is a reserve?
The proportion of the resource that can be explored now, economically, using existing technology.
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What is a resource?
All the material that is theoretically available for exploitation. But may not be available yet, could be in future because of technology
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What are the factors effecting mine viability?
Land conflicts-existing land use is more valuable/important than the mining then it may not be exploited
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What are the extraction costs that can effect mines?
Overburden-rock above mineral that must be removed, depth-mining costs double if depth doubles, form of mineral deposit-increase costs if minerals found in thin layers
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What are the market economics that can effect mines?
Demand and sale value of control economic viability of exploring a particular mineral deposit.
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How can transport effect mines?
Distance to market, ease of bulk transport and presence of suitable transport
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What are the processing costs that effect mines?
Chemical form-other elements with which its combined need to be removed. More energy to break bonds=more expensive. Purity=cost increases as purity decreases.
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What is the cut off ore grade?
The lowest ore purity that can be exploited economically
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What are the environmental impacts of mineral exploitation
Exploration-surveys cause vibrations, Land impacts-conflitcs, habitat loss- can move to another habitat, pollution-dust and noise, an embankment can muffle noise, turbidity of drainage water-decreased by holding water in lagoon to settle
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What can toxic leachate, soil disposal and subsidence cause?
Toxic leachate-fertilisers onto fields can destroy crops, soil disposal-landslides, subsidence-land slides, caused by poor soil compaction
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How can the future of mineral supplies be increased
Increased exploration, better exploratory techniques, remote sensing:info without touching, gravimetry: strength of gravity=denseness of rock, magnetometry: strength of magnetism helps to detect magnet rocks. Seismic surveys-vibrations of depth
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What are the major processes of the carbon cycle?
photosynthesis captures light energy, converts into carbohydrates. Respiration releases energy from substances, food chains pass carbon between organisms, fossilisation-decomposition in anaerobic conditions, combustion and volcanoes release CO2
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What are the human impacts on the carbon cycle?
Combustion increases co2, fossil fuel processing releases methane, combustion of wood reduces stored carbon, ploughing and climate change increases rate of decomposition
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What are the human impacts on the nitrogen cycle?
Haber process-fixation of nitrogen, converting to ammonia. Nitrate fertilisers increase problems of leaching, drainage increases nitrifying bacteria, legumes may be grown to increase levels of nitrogen in soil, NOx released by combustion
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What are the major processes in the phosphorus cycle?
Atmosphere not involved. Phosphates not soluble and often limiting factor on plant growth, dissolved phosphates are absorbed by plants. Excreted/dead matter used in other plants, humans increase crop growth by fertilisers, cause eutrafication
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What is the mineral skeleton of the soil?
Produced by weathering, clay=smallest, silt=medium, sand=largest.
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What is the soil texture?
Proportion of particles of different sizes are described as soil texture and affect properties of soil
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What is the air in soil?
Found in spaces not occupied by water, air provides gases for aerobic organisms.
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What is soil water?
Plants need water for physiological functions:replace water lost in transpiration and absorbing nutrients
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What are the living organisms in soil responsible for?
Decomposition, nutrient recycling and drainage
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What is dead organic matter important for?
Source of food for soil organisms. Breaks down nutrients and forms humus-complex mix of organic materials-holds soil together
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What are the soil properties that can affect fertility and productivity?
Aeration-aerobic processes, water drainage-nutrient absorption, thermal capacity-ability to retain heat, soil structure-peds, soil particles clump together. pH-denature root proteins. Soil texture-drainage, nutrient retention, root penetration
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Card 2

Front

What resources and reserves does it provide?

Back

Physical resources for exploitation, biogeochemical cycles-recycle elements, through soil-growth medium, habitat and location for cycles

Card 3

Front

What are mineral resources?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are some examples of metals and their uses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are some examples of non-metals and their uses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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