Environmental Studies Unit 4

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  • Created by: sally
  • Created on: 19-06-13 17:43
an area of land used for grazing livestock
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a chemical that is used to kill pest species
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an activity that can be carried out without making life more difficult for people in the future
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an organism that produces high-energy food substances using light
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food chain
a sequence of organisms arranged to show their feeding relationships and food energy flow
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trophic level
a position in a food chain e.g. primary producer, secondary consumer
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an animal that only eats plant food
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the stomach changer in which bacteria digest cellulose in ruminants
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an organism that gains its food energy from other heterotrophs
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an organism that eats plant and animal foods
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the living organisms, physical processes and their interactions in a farming system
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selective breeding
producing offspring from particular chosen parents, usually to produce offspring with desirable characteristics
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genetic modification (GM)
the method of altering an organisms genetic makeup by artificially introducing genes from another organism, often of another species
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limiting factor
an environmental factor present in insufficient amounts to allow a process to occur at a faster rate
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living organisms
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the combined movement of water into the atmosphere from the evaporation from surfaces and transpiration from leaves
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solar insolation
sunlight landing on a surface
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the 3D shape of the land surface
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the direction something faces in terms of sunlight
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tenant farmer
a farmer that rents land from the owner
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a limit on the number or quantity of items e.g. milk productions
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haber process
a chemical process used to manufacture ammonia from which nitrate fertilisers can be made
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F1 hybrid
the first generation of offspring produced by breeding from two distinct true bredding varieties. all the offspring have the same combinations of characteristics
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true breeding variety
a variety of selectively bred organisms where all members are genetically almost identical and produce similar offspring
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asexual reproduction
production of new organisms using the genetic material from a single individual. the offspring are genetically identical to the parent
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vegetative propagation
asexual reproduction
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an artificial form of asexual reproduction
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producing offspring by mating parents of two different breeds or varieties
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hybrid vigour
the good health achieved by breeding between breeds that are not closely related. this reduces the risk of inbreeding and recessive gene diseases
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the hybrid vigour produced by breeding between two organisms that are not closely related
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a green revolution rice variety
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green revolution
the agricultural changes since the mid 20th century, where high yielding cereal varieties were bred to increase food production
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genetic engineering
the method of altering an organism's genetic makeup by artificially introducing genes from another organism, often of another species
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the process of artificially transferring genetic material from one organism into an individual of another species
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horizontal gene transfer
the transfer of genetic material between organisms without normal breeding taking place
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a group of plant hormones
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a group of plant hormones
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a chemical that stimulates fruit ripening
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bovine somatotropin - an animal hormone used to stimulate milk production
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anabolic steroid hormones
a female or male hormone used to increase livestock gross growth efficiency
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endemic pests
a pest that is normally present
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epidemic pests
a pest that is not normally a problem but may become a serious pest when the population suddenly increases
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the growth of a single type of crop, usually over a large area
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the property of a substance dissolving in lipids
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organochlorine pesticides
persistent insecticide group e.g. DDT (most are now banned)
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a substance that is absorbed and transported throughout an organism
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organophosphate pesticides
insecticide group e.g. parathion, malathion
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pyrethroid pesticides
insecticide group
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a micro-organism that is carried by livestock which, if transferred to humans, causes disease
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crop rotation
the practice of growing a different crop in a field on a cycle of three, four or five years
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material added to the soil surface e.g. shredded crop waste to inhibit weed growth
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a chemical released by an organism that changes the behaviour of other members of the same species, especially to attract a mate
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the colloidal material in soil that is the end product of the decomposition of dead organic matter
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a plant nutrient needed in large amounts e.g. N, P, K
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a plant nutrient needed in small amounts
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extensive agriculture
agriculture where the maximum total yield is achieved by distributing the inputs over the total available area. inputs are usually low
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intensive agriculture
farming where high yields are achieved by using large inputs per unit area
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universal soil loss equation
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cultivation by turning the soil e.g. by ploughing
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marshall plan
a US scheme after WWII to provide food aid to europe
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set aside
farmland that has been taken out of production and is not cultivated but is kept in a condition where it could be farmed again
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environmentally sensitive areas
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Countryside Stewardship Scheme
a scheme where farmers could get grants for a range of activities that benefited the environment or improved amenity value for the public
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environmental stewardship scheme
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group of invertebrates with jointed limbs and an exoskeleton, including crabs, lobsters and shrimps
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invertebrate organisms with a hard shell; including oysters, clams, mussels and squid
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primitive photosynthetic plant like organisms
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free floating photosynthetic organisms that drift with the water currents
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algal blooms
the rapid growth of an algae population
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photic layer
the water layer into which light can penetrate
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maximum sustainable yield
the greatest amount that can be sustainably harvested
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fishing above the MSY
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living near the water surface e.g. herring and tuna
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living on the seabed e.g. cod and plaice
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the non-target organisms that are caught when fishing
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the artificial production of aquatic organisms, including fish farming
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climax community
the community of organisms at the end of primary succession
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the northern confier forest biome found in canada, scandinavia, russia
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trees that produce their seeds in cones e.g. pine, spruce, fir
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the pores on a leaf through which gases are exchanged and transpiration water is lost
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the process of shedding all leaves at the same time
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the layer of tree vegetation beneath the canopy layer
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the region of the earth within 22.5 degrees of the equator, where the sun is overhead at some time during the year
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primary producer
the energy captured during photosynthesis
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the uppermost layer of vegetation in a forest
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layering as seen with vegetation layers in forests
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net primary productivity - the energy captured by an autotroph during photosynthesis but which has not been used in respiration
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the process where trees are cut to ground level every few years. the regrowth produces long narrow stems
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the process whereby trees are cut back to 4 to 8ft above the ground every few years. the regrowth produces long, narrow stems
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forest parks
forestry commission forest areas that are open to the public for recreational use
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national forest
an area in the east midlands of England where woodland creation and countryside management is being carried out for the benefit of the local communities and wildlife
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community forest
a deliberately managed and planted forest for the benefit of the community
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programme for belize (PfB)
independent conservation organisation that manages the rio bravo conservation and management area in belize, central america
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forestry stewardship council (FSC)
an organisation that certifies sustainable forestry operations
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planned obsolescene
the deliberate plan to make items that do not last as long as they could have, usually for commercial gain
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ecological footprint
the area of the earths surface that is needed to provide the resources that are used by the human population and to deal with the wastes produced
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ecological debt
this is the concept that we are exploiting the planet at a faster rate than it can replace the resources we have used
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ecological debt day
this is the day on which it is estimated that we have used up the whole years worth of resources
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carbon footprint
this is the part of an ecological footprint caused by the release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
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a measure of the biological productivity of an area
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land remediation relief
companies can claim tax refunds on money spent cleaning up containment land
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enhanced capital allowances
companies can claim tax refunds on money spent on better equipment such as low emission vehicles and equipment that saves energy or water
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income tax
if an employer pays towards an employee's public transport season ticket then this is taxed as a perk of the job, but if a free parking place is provided at work this is not. this makes public transport less competitive
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a chemical that is used to kill pest species

Card 3




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Card 4




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Card 5


food chain


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