Environmental problem

  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 10-05-16 15:26
Psychoanalytical approach- 3 basic Freudian principles
Unconscious motivations, conflict is universal, humans unconsciously use defence mechanisms
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Sexual and physical desire
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Death instinct- need to self destruct
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Id/ Ego/ Superego
Pleasure seeking principle/ Reality principle/ Morality principle
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9 defence mechanisms- Rationalism
Creating attractive but untrue explanation
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Distancing self from problem by describing it in intellectual terms
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Displacing feelings onto less threatening target
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Try and think about something else
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Unconsciously think about something else
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Self explanatory
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Reaction formation
Denial plus reacting against it aggressively
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Seeing things in others you dont see in yourself
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Channelling anxiety into environmental problems
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Objects relation theories
Self developed through primary attachment- influences other relationships and influences relationship with mother earth
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5 stages
Experience own anxiety, express these feelings, recognise defences and reactions, recognise unconscious needs, choosing pro-environmental behaviours
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Behavioural approach
Positive and Negative reinforcement/ Positive and Negative Punishment
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Contingency trap
Only think about short term instead of long term
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Rewarding pro-environmental behaviour
Doesn't work once rewards are removed
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Larson et al
Feedback can work as reward- no. of aluminium cans recycled increased by 65%
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SLT- Men's showers
told to turn of water while applying soap- 6% did this/ 1 confederate demonstrating= 47%/ 2 confederates demonstrating= 67%
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Videos of people turning heating down
28% reduction in energy use
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Cognitive approach
Brain= computer- Behaviour is function of quality of info that goes in- organise info using Heuristics/ short-cuts/ biases
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Visual Dependency Heuristic
Sight= more of brains functioning than other senses
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Availability Heuristic
Believe everything we see on the media
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False consensus bias
People believe their beliefs are the same as others
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Benoit and Norton
Water ban- students ignored it and thought other students were ignoring it
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'Green Washing'
Companies appearing more green than they are
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Social Approach
Social norms- Descriptive norms (what you think others are doing)/ Injunctive norms (what you think you ought to be doing)
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Cialdini et al
Flyers on windscreen of littered or unlittered car park- more likely to litter in littered carpark= descriptive norm
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Social diffusion
Adapting social norms
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Subjective norms- social/ personal
Social= How you behave and how you ought to behave/ Personal= How you behave and how you feel obliged to behave
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PBC constraints
Things that make it difficult to achieve behaviour/ things that make it difficult to make an impact
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Krussen et al
Recycling- biggest effect on intention= past behaviour + PBC
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Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Gap between attitudes and behaviours is uncomfortable
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Sexual and physical desire

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Id/ Ego/ Superego


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9 defence mechanisms- Rationalism


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