Environmental Ethics

Define anthropocentric
Human centered (Aquinas, Kant, Bentham)
1 of 37
Define biocentric
Life-centered (shallow ecology, Singer)
2 of 37
Define ecocentric
Planet-centered (deep ecology, Lovelock, Naess)
3 of 37
Define dominion
Humans > nature, can rule over it. Humans = peak of creation.
4 of 37
What quote shows dominion in the Bible?
"...rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky" - G1:26
5 of 37
What did Aquinas say about creation?
"All animals are naturally subject to man"
6 of 37
Define stewardship
Humans responsible for looking after world
7 of 37
What Bible quote shows stewardship?
"The Lord took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it." - G2:15
8 of 37
What parts of the Bible show creation as being valuable?
"God saw that it was good" - G1:10
9 of 37
What parts of the Bible show creation as having lesser value?
"God created mankind in his image..." - G1:27
10 of 37
What did St Francis of Assisi say about the environment?
God communicates to us through natural world, all creatures can worship God
11 of 37
What Bible quote shows The Fall leading to the world's environmental issues?
"The earth is defiled by its people...they have broken the everlasting covenant." - Isaiah 24:5
12 of 37
What are some strengths of the Christian approach to enviromental ethics?
Crook - Technology/science not bad (human activity valuable) Christians can reject lifestyles damaging God’s creation, creation itself valuable
13 of 37
What are some weaknesses of the Christian approach to enviromental ethics?
Enc. human domination of world
14 of 37
Define shallow ecology
Environment only to be looked after if it benefits humans - has instrumental value
15 of 37
How can shallow ecology be seen as the main focus of conservation ethics?
A person will do something (e.g recycling) to help themselves
16 of 37
How can shallow ecology be criticised?
Allows species to die out if they don't benefit humans, nature > instrumental
17 of 37
Define deep ecology
Nature has intrinsic value, every being has equal right to flourish
18 of 37
Why does Arne Naess, the creator of deep ecology, disagree with stewardship?
Having a soul doesn't make humans more impt. - arrogant theory.
19 of 37
What actions does Naess advocate in order to help the ecological world?
Decreased population + economic growth, return to agrarian lifestyle
20 of 37
How can deep ecology be criticised?
Does everything (incl. rocks, disease) have rights? Idea of agarianism outdated. Misanthropic - deep ecologists would argue for inc. value of indiv.
21 of 37
What is the Gaia hypothesis?
Humans part of complex, self-regulating system that solves problems caused by humans
22 of 37
What two things does the hypothesis imply?
Severe environmental problems overloading system OR earth compensating for human disruption; we have less infl.
23 of 37
How does the Gaia hypothesis see evolution?
Too limiting - organisms/environment evolve together
24 of 37
What did Dawkins say about deep ecology?
Evolution --> no evidence for organisms clubbing together
25 of 37
What does Singer say about deep ecology?
only sentient life forms have intrinsic value (b/c NS beings, e.g plants don't experience things)
26 of 37
How would Bentham respond to the environment?
Weigh up pleasure/pain (this uniform?), sees animals as able to suffer.
27 of 37
How would Mill respond to the environment?
Enjoyment of nature = higher pleasure, needs to be protected.
28 of 37
How would Singer respond to the environment?
Against speciesism, sees plants as non-sentient beings, current generation's satisfaction > environment,
29 of 37
How can the utilitarian view be critiqued?
Humans + environment can be exploited, can't calculate consequences
30 of 37
How would Kantian ethics respond to environment?
Humans > other lifeforms (reason - this guides action). Humans can't treat environment as means to edn, or exploit it (Law of Nature). Good will extends to
31 of 37
How can the Kantian view be critiqued?
Environment only has instrumental value, can universalise destruction
32 of 37
How would virtue ethics respond to environment?
No single way to develop virtues, agent-centered, caring for animals ---> human flourishing
33 of 37
How can this view be critiqued?
Differing values, ethicists breaching Golden Mean (Naess), virtues diff. local/national
34 of 37
What does natural law say about the environment?
Dominion over animals, reverence for creation
35 of 37
Evaluate this view
Animals have less value, but environment itself as value via telos, animals have less value than humans but should still be respected
36 of 37
What does Matthew Fox say?
Pantheism - god w/i everything, destroyin environment = destroying God
37 of 37

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define biocentric


Life-centered (shallow ecology, Singer)

Card 3


Define ecocentric


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define dominion


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What quote shows dominion in the Bible?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Ethics resources »