Entire flashcards for From Kaiser to Führer, German history from 1900-1945

What was the impact of the Hottentot Election?
The socialists, displayed as unpatriotic, lost 36 seats
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When was the Hottentot election?
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When was the Daily Telegraph Affair?
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What did the Daily Telegraph Affair reveal?
The Reichstag could, sometimes, hold the Kaiser accountable for his actions, but also that the Kaiser had ultimate control over patronage.
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When was Alsace-Lorraine given a constitution?
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How many people attended elections in 1870?
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How many people attended elections in 1913?
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Who argues that the increase in elections (and the Daily Telegraph Affair) help to reveal a more democratic Second Reich?
Historians from below - Eley - (argues for emerging parliamentarianism)
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In the 1908 Prussian Bundesrat elections elections conservatives received 16% of the vote. This translated into how many seats?
212 seats
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In the 1908 Prussian Bundesrat elections the SPD received 43% of the vote. How many seats did they gain?
7 seats
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The 1913 Zabern Affair exemplifies either:
1) the power of the Kaiser (Röhl) or 2) the power of the conservative elites (Wehler)
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In the Zabern Affair, who did the Kaiser consult to understand what was actually happening?
He ignored the governor of Alsace-Lorraine, preferring to talk to the general in charge.
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Britain’s naval powers always had to be greater than…?
Any two countries combined
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When was the Anglo-French Entente?
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When was the First Moroccan Crisis?
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When was the Anglo-Russian Entente?
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When was Bosnia annexed?
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Which country saw the annexation of Bosnia as a threat to their sovereignty?
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How was the annexation of Bosnia managed by Austria?
They threatened war
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Where did Germany stand on the annexation?
They supported Austria despite not being consulted about the annexation
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How could the management of the annexation of Bosnia be described?
As a form of brinkmanship by Germany & Austria
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When was the Second Moroccan Crisis?
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When was the First Balkans War?
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One large action in favour if Fischer's thesis (occurred in the July crisis)?
The blank cheque issued to Austria by Germany
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Political name for an ideology held by Russia and Serbia?
Pan slav ideology
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When was the “War Council” meeting?
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Who was not present at the War Council meeting?
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How many of Austria’s demands did Serbia accept - and in what time limit?
Nine in 48 hours
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Fill in the gap: on the 29th of July, the Tsar ordered a ____ mobilisation.
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Fill in the gap: on the 30th of July, the Tsar ordered a ____ mobilisation.
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When did the SPD become the largest party in the Reichstag, and how many seats did this mean that they held?
In 1912 the SPD held 110 seats, making them the largest
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When would Russian rearmament be completed?
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List two German laws which could show increasing aggression?
The 1912 and 1913 Army Laws which increased the peacetime strength of the army by 20%
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Define and give an example of Burgfrieden
Burgfrieden: all political parties put their differences aside for the duration of WWI. This is exemplified when the Reichstag reviewed 800 laws, and did not change any of them - and all of the political parties voted in favour of war credits
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Give an example of the governments failure to organise the food supply.
There were forty different Imperial Corporations who fought amongst each other regarding distribution. In early 1915 the bureaucracy killed 9 million pigs
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German word for substitute goods?
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How many German workers were mobilised?
Up to one third
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What was the SPD's reaction to war credits?
At the end of 1914 only one deputy voted against war credits
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Hindenburg's role in WWI?
Head of supreme army command
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Lundendorff's role in WWI?
General Quatermaster
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What did the Hindenburg Programme entail?
An attempt to double munitions by militarising the economy in 1916 (launched in August 1916)
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What does the Hindenburg Programme reveal about Germany? And when was it launched?
Launched in 1916, it demonstrated an increasing commitment to total war
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The Kreuznach programme sought what?
Extensive annexations in the East and the West
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What did the Kreuznach programme reveal about Germany? And in what year was it launched?
Launched in 1917 it showed an increasing commitment to total war
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Define Siegfriede.
A "glorious victory" which would show Germany's military might.
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Name a great humiliation for Germans
The 1916/7 "Turnip Winter" in which Germans ate turnips because of the lack of potatoes.
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Provide a statistic which shows a decrease in German agricultural strength
Production of milk and dairy fats fell by a third in 1917
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Provide an example of political polarisation in the right wing
Hindenburg and Ludendorff's creation of the Fatherland Party (Vaterlandspartei), which gained 1.2 million members by 1918
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Prove an example of political polarisation in the left wing
In 1917 the USPD was created from the SPD
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Increasing desperation in 1917 led to one major political change
Bethmann-Hollweg was dismissed as chancellor
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What was George Michaelis described as?
"The fairy on top of the christmas tree for the benefit of the children"
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Dark joke regarding the Kaiser's contribution to the German army
"What father is to survive this war with all six sons alive?"
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How serious was the "spartacist rebellion", and when was it?
Not that serious as it was a protest which was haphazardly turned into a rebellion, and was swiftly crushed by the Freikorps.
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Name and give numbers for a right wing German paramilitary group.
The Freikorps had 5,000 members and 200 units in Germany by 1919
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How much support did Germany have for the KPD, and how much support did the KPD have for the Weimar Republic?
The German Communist Party completely opposed Weimar and its democratic principles. It's support grew to 20% of the population by 1920
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What extent of electorate support did the SPD enjoy in 1919?
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The Treaty of Versailles demanded how many marks in reparations in 1921?
132 billion gold marks
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How was the Treaty of Versailles viewed by the German population?
A diktat - dictated peace
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Provide a statistic to exemplify the hyperinflation.
In an index of prices where 1 = 1914, prices escalated to 7.5*10(to the power of 11) by the end of 1923
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What percentage of German steel was produced by the Ruhr?
An overwhelming 80%
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When was the Ruhr Crisis?
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How many French soldiers invaded Germany in the "Ruhr Crisis"?
60,000 soldiers
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When was the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch?
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In the aftermath of the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch, how strictly punished were those who participated?
Of 705 people involved, only one was found guilty by the courts
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Between January 1919- June 1922, 354 right wing assassins were tried by the courts. How many were found guilty?
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How badly was Lüttwitz punished for his role?
He was given early retirement
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What was Seect's response to the Putsch?
Declared that the soldiers would not fight against their fellow soldier, yet he did not send his men to participate in the Putsch
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Some claim that the Weimar Republic endangered itself. Why?
Article 54 made the judiciary independent, which led to cases like the 1920 Erzberger case, proportional representation led to weak coalition governments who fell out about flags in 1926 and the risk posed by article 48 (used 134 times by Ebert)
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The 1919 Spartacist rebellion fragmented the left wing. Why?
This rebellion led to the execution of two important left wing leaders: Karl Liebnicht and Rosa Luxemburg.
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How, and when, did the DVP's (German People's Party) attitude towards Weimar change?
They switched from anti-Weimar to pro-Weimar after 1920.
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22 left wing assassinations were carried out between 1919-1922. How many of these assassins went unpunished?
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When did French and Belgium troops leave the Ruhr?
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What did the Locarno Pact entail and when was it negotiated?
In 1925 the Locarno Pact sealed Germany's borders with France, yet left the Polish border open for negotiation. It also meant that the five countries involved renounced the use of force unless they were threatened.
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When was Germany admitted to the League of Nations?
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List one incredibly mature issue which collapsed Luther's government.
In 1926, Luther's government collapsed regarding the German Flag. Serious stuff.
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German agreement with Russia was exemplified in the...?
Treaty of Berlin in 1926
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When did German production equal that of 1913?
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How much did exports increase in the "golden years"
By 40% between 1925 and 1929.
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In the 1928 election, what percentage of Germans voted for pro-Weimar parties?
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When did Hindenburg appoint a Chancellor from a party he ideologically opposed?
In 1928 (and the Chancellor was a member of the SPD)
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Give one piece of evidence of a flourishing anti-war culture in Germany in the literary community.
Remarque's "All Quiet on the Western Front" in 1929 (which won a Nobel Prize)
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How many people voted in the referendum opposing the Young Plan organised by right wing parties (inc. DNVP and the Nazis)
13.9% of all voters
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How much was due in reparations after the "Young Plan"?
112 billion Gold Marks
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When was the Young Plan?
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How many governments were there from 1923-1929?
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What percentage of support did the KPD enjoy in 1928?
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Unemployment never fell below ...?
10.3 million
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What were wages like between 1924-1930?
They rose every year
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Did agriculture thrive in the Weimar Republic?
No, it entered recession in 1927
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How many people were unemployed in 1933, and what percentage was this of the total population?
6 million people, and 26%
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What was the ratio of officials to population in the town of Würzburg?
28 officials for a million people
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In Saarbrucken where did most of the arrests come from?
87.5% of “slander against the regime” from denunciations, whilst 8% were from the Gestapo
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How many Gestapo officers were there in Hanover in 1935?
42 officers
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Which students association were responsible for the book burning on the 10th of May?
The book burning on the 10th May was committed by the rival German Students’ Association (DS) rather than the Nazi German Student Federation (NSDSTB)
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How many people joined the Nazi Party between January to March 1933?
1.6 million Germans
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What was unemployment like by 1936?
1.5 million
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How much did GNP grow by during these years?
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Give an example of Nazi propaganda?
Triumph of Will, based on 1934 Nuremberg Rally, came out in 1935
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How many Germans could the Nazi regime broadcast to by 1939?
16 million Germans
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What was the outcome of the plebiscites the Nazis held?
1933 - pulling out of League of Nations - 95% agreed 1934 - Hitler combines Hindenburg's post with his own - 90% support, 1936 - remilitarisation of the Rhineland - 99% 1938 - Anschluss - 99%
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When did Germany start major conscription?
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When did major German rearmament start?
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By 1936, how much had industrial production increased?
Industrial production increased by 60% since 1933
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When did Germany hold the Olympics?
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How many people, by 1938, had enjoyed a holiday funded by "Strength through Joy"?
10 million German workers had a state-financed holiday by Kraft durch Freude, about 1/3rd of the workforce
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How much of the German population were working class?
Almost half
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When did real wages raise above 1928 levels?
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How much did working hours increase from 1933-1939?
In 1933 the average working week was 43 hours, whereas the 1939 working week was 47
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List two interventions of the German government with the peasantry?
Firstly the Reich Entitled Farm Law of 1933 stopped farms being divided as part of inheritance, and the bureaucratic Reich Food Estate (1933) which tried to coordinate farming but meddled, declared that hens should lay at least 65 eggs annually
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Despite the Nazis attempt to assimilate themselves with the peasantry, how many people drifted towards the towns?
3% of the population from 1928-1938
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How much did farming production increase?
Production increased by 20% from 1933-1936
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When was the concordat?
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When did Catholics successfully oppose the regime?
In 1936 an order banning crucifixes in schools was withdrawn after significant protest.
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Provide a statistic for the Nazi's giving aid.
In the Gau of upper-bavaria, Nazi organisations distributed 25,800 litres of milk in one month in 1934
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When was the Anschluss?
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When did Germany reintroduce soldiers in the Rhineland?
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Did workers wholeheartedly support the regime?
Not necessarily, absenteeism doubled from 1936-1939 and there were strikes at Russlsheim and Berlin in 1936
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How many communists were arrested in the Reichstag Fire of 1933?
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How successful was communist resistance?
In 1934 the authorities seized 1.25 million communist leaflets, The Rote Fahne (Red Flag) was distributed until 1935, and the Gestapo estimated that there were 5,000 active communists in Berlin in 1935.
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When was the Blomberg-Fritsch affair?
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Did all of the conservatives support the regime?
Not necessarily, the mayor of Leizpig resigned in 1937 about the removal of a statue of Felix Mendelesson.
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Did the Nazis hold significant influence in education?
Arguably, by 1937 97% of teachers joined the National Socialist Teachers’ League (Nationalsozialistiche Lehrerbund) and 2/3rd of teachers had been trained for a month on Nazi ideology
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How extensive was the influence of the Hitler Youth in 1938?
In 1938 around 77.2% of the population as members of the Hitler Youth
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How much support did Niemöller confessional church have?
7,000 of 17,000 pastors participated.
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How many children did you need to earn the golden cross of the German mother?
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When was the Lebensraum programme started?
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How did the number of people in the concentration camps change from 1935-1936?
It doubled
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How did the number of people in concentration camps change from 1933-1934?
It fell by almost a third
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How did the party membership change from 1933-1935?
It increased by almost 300%
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Were the Nuremberg Laws written in an efficient manner?
No, they were a response to 1935 SA attacks on Jews which led to the laws being written overnight and announced in his speech, which Hitler then attempted to slow down before the Olympics.
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What time did Hitler go to bed, and wake up, when he was on holiday?
2am and 2pm
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How many jobs/posts did Goering hold in the Nazi organisation?
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How was the T4 programme introduced?
Around 1939 Bouhler showed Hitler a letter requesting Euthanasia authorised Bouhler to organise this but it was not authorised in a law. The programme was stopped briefly in 1941 after Galen's organised protests.
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Give an example of fighting between departments?
Röhm and Himmler and Schact's battles with Goering about the Five Year Plans
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How did cabinet meetings change from 1936-1937?
They increased from 4 to 7
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What led to the 1933 boycotts of Jewish shops?
Agitation by the SA (partly after Potsdam Day) wanting a "second revolution" as they were more left wing.
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When did Schacht resign?
November 1937
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When did a German carpenter attempt to assassinate Hitler?
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When was the invasion of France?
May 1940
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Failed invasion of Russia?
Operation Barbarossa, in 1941, Summer uniforms and the strength of Stalingrad, and the Soviet's moving their key factories
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In which year did Germany invade North Africa?
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When did the Axis forces in North Africa surender?
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Give an example of German organisation of rationing to avoid the problems faced in WWI?
They even had Christmas rations, in 1942 every citizen recieved an extra 200 grammes of meat
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When did the German successes slow down, and concerns begin to grow?
Around 1941 onwards - defeat at Stalingrad heralded a major change.
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Give an example of one of the oneliners reported to the party chancellery in March/April 1943
"What's the difference between the sun and Hitler? The sun rises in the east, Hitler goes down in the East.
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How many homes were destroyed by allied bombing?
Nearly 2 million
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Describe the successful resistance of the Catholic community in Bavaria.
Adolf Wagner demanded the removal of crucifixes from German schools, they resisted so much that Wagner overturned his order but this didn't pose an attack on the Führer.
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Describe the successful challenge posed by an individual catholic.
Bishop von Galen successful opposed the T4 programme in the October of 1941.
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Did the left wing pose any successful resistance?
This is debatable, in Summer 1941 there were 89 opposition cells in Berlin, but organised opposition achieved very little. These organisations were swiftly crushed (shown through Rote Kapelle's destruction in 1942)
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How were the Edelweiss Pirates treated?
14 were executed in cologne
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What was the White Rose Group?
A student organisation led by Hans and Sophie Scholl, they distributed six anti-Nazi leaflets before someone informed the Gestapo, and the pair were executed.
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Name the largest group of conservative resistance.
The Kreisau circle
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Which bomb plot later in the period remains incredibly significant, and why?
Stauffenberg's bomb plot because Stauffenberg was a loyal Nazi who attempted to assassinate Hitler because he felt they were loosing the war.
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How much of a threat did the army pose?
Less at the beginning of WWI especially as soldiers saluted Hitler himself. The potential threat of the army never fully formed.
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How much did output per worker of munitions increase from 1939-1944?
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Speer cut down the number of vehicles manufactured for war. Give the statistics for before, and after this change?
Originally 55 but Speer cut it down to 14
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When were ghettoes for Polish Jews established?
September 1939
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When was The Madgascar Plan detailed, and how many Jews did it plan on deporting?
4 million Jews, drawn up in 1940. Mussolini and the Italian Foreign Minister were informed of this plan
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Name the ** death squad who persecuted the Jews in conquered land?
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In which year was the first gassing in a concentration camp?
1940 in Buchenwald, which gassed a group of Roma children
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When was the Wannsee Conference?
January 1942. None of the large players of the Nazi regime attended the conference.
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Which school of thought states that Hitler’s commitment to antisemitism set an inevitable course from Hitler’s chancellorship to the Nuremburg laws, and finally the Holocaust
Intentionalists such as Fleming & Dawidowicz
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Which school of thought states that the lack of clear objectives mean that the Second Reich was implemented because of the chaos of the Third Reich
Structuralists, notably K. Schleunes
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Who "resolves" the structuralist and intentionalist thoughts?
Ian Kershaw who says Hitler provided the momentum: ‘no Hitler no Holocaust.’, making him a necessary cause but not the sufficient cause.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


When was the Hottentot election?



Card 3


When was the Daily Telegraph Affair?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did the Daily Telegraph Affair reveal?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When was Alsace-Lorraine given a constitution?


Preview of the front of card 5
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