Exchanging Materials

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What is OSMOSIS?
The movement of water from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water (from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution) across a semi permeable membrane
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What is ACTIVE TRANSPORT?
A type of transport which requires energy, moves molecules against the concentration gradient- from a low to high concentration
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What conditions would an ANIMAL CELL BURST in?
If it was placed in a solution more dilute than the cytoplasm
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What happens to a PLANT CELL if it is placed in a solution more concentrated than the cytoplasm?
Water moves out of the cell by osmosis and the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall
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Give an example of a cell that uses ACTIVE TRANSPORT and what it uses it for.
Root hair cells use active transport to absorb minerals like nitrates from dilute concentrations in the soil
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In what ORGANS would you find EXCHANGE SURFACES
The lungs, The small intestine and The kidneys
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What is the purpose of the VILLI and where are they in the body?
They are in the small intestine and they absorb nutrients from food- e.g glucose into the blood
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What EXCHANGE SURFACE do the LUNGS have?
Alveoli- to absord oxgen from the air and to release carbon dioxide from the blood.
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Where are the NEPHRONS and what is their purpose?
They are in the kidneys and they remove urea from the blood
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How are the VILLI, ALVEOLI and the NEPHRONS adapted for efficient gas exhange?
Villi increase the surface area of the Sm intestine, Nephrons maintain the kidneys concentation gradient, Alveoli have flattened cells giving the lungs a small diffusion distance
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How is the SMALL INTESTINE specially adapted for gas exhange?
Villi- Increases Surface area, Thin walls- small diffusion distance, Proteins- for active transport to absorb nutrients against concentration gradient, Dense network of blood capillaries- to move nutrients away and maintain concentration gradient
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When and Where does GAS EXCHANGE take place?
Either when oxygen diffuses into the blood or when carbon dioxide diffuses into the air, In the alveoli
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How does AIR reach the ALVEOLI?
It passes through the Trachea, the Bronchi and the Bronchioles
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Why do ALVEOLI and CAPILLARIES have a short diffusion distance?
They are one cell thick
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How are the CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS maintained?
The movement of the blood and ventilation maintains them
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What is VENTILATION?
Moving air in and out of the lungs
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What is INSPIRED and EXPIRED air?
Inspired air is air that is breathed in, Expired air is air that is breathed out
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When does BREATHING RATE INCREASE?
When more oxygen is needed- e.g when excercising
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How are CARBON DIOXIDE levels detected?
By the brain- it detects the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood, signals pass along the nerves from the brain to the muscles to make them contract and relax more frequently
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What and Where are the STOMATA?
They are pores on the underside of the leaf
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What do the STOMATA do?
They absorb carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and they also regulate the rate of transpiration
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What are GUARD CELLS?
Cells surrounding the stomata- control water loss, and the amount of gases in and out of the leaf
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What is TRANSPIRATION?
When water leaves the plant
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What are Xylem and Phloem?
The Xylem transports water up the plant to the leaves and other organs, the phloem transports sugars and other molecules up and down the plant.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is ACTIVE TRANSPORT?

Back

A type of transport which requires energy, moves molecules against the concentration gradient- from a low to high concentration

Card 3

Front

What conditions would an ANIMAL CELL BURST in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to a PLANT CELL if it is placed in a solution more concentrated than the cytoplasm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give an example of a cell that uses ACTIVE TRANSPORT and what it uses it for.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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