English speech revision

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How are sounds produced?
Air from the lungs passing around the vocal cord.
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What are constant sounds affected by?
Manner of articulation (control of air stem), Place of articulation (e.g lips, tongue, teeth, ruff of the mouth) and if sound is voiced or unvoiced by the vibrations in the throat.
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What are plosives? Give examples.
The sound made by just lips touching. Example - p,b,m,d
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What are nasals? Give 2 examples.
The sound made by the fat part of the tongue. Example - d, n
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What are fricatives? Give 2 examples.
Sounds made by the tip of the tongue touching alveolar ridge. Example - f,s,j
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What are laterals?
Sounds made by the tongue on the ridge of cheek.
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What are approximants?
Sounds made by the tongue touching the ridge.
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Theorists
.
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What is the Nativist theory? Who are the key theorists?
Humans have an in built capacity to acquire language. Key theorists - Chomsky and Lennebury
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What is the behaviourist theory? Who are the key theorist?
Language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement. Key theorist - Skinner
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What is the social interactionist theory? Who are the key theorists?
Child language is developed through interaction with adults. Key theorists - Bruner and Vygotsky
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What is the cognitive theory? Who are the key theorists?
Language acquisition is part of a wiser development of understanding that develops. Key theorists - Vygotsky and Piaget
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What are declarative sentences?
Declaring something
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What are exclamatory sentences?
Explaining something
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What are interrogative sentences?
Asking questions
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What are imperative sentences?
Giving instructions
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What is structuring?
Scaffolding, setting up the sentence and turn-taking
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What are yes and no interrogatives?
Yes/No interrogatives are questions that require a yes or no answer
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What is deletion? (virtuous errors)
Omitting the final consonant in the words. Example - Do(g)
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What is substitution? (Virtuous errors)
Substituting one sound for another Example - 'pip' for 'ship'
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What is addition? (virtuous errors)
Addition in an extra vowel sound to the ends of the word. Example - Doggie
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What is an assimilation? (virtuous errors)
Changing one consonant or vowel for another.
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What is reduplication? (virtuous errors)
Repeating a whole syllable.
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What is consonant cluster? (virtuous errors)
Where there are letters missing from the word. Example - pider = spider
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What does the deletion of unstressed syllables?
Omitting the opening syllables in polysyllabic words.
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What are the 4 stages of Katherine Nelson?
Naming, actions/events, describing/modifying things and personal/social words.
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What are content words?
Nouns, verbs and adjectives
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Over-extension
.
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What is categorical over-extension? (use an eample)
Example - Apple is used for all round fruits.
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What is analogical over-extension? (Use an example)
Example - Ball used for a round fruit
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What is mismatch over-extension? (use an example)
Example - Saying 'duck' looking at an empty pond.
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What is the telegraphic stage?
Words are left out (function words) but content words are retained. Makes sense. But not fluent.
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What are the question characteristics in the telegraphic stage?
Rising inflections, what (subject/object), where (location), why (reason) and when (time)
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What are the stages of Bellugi? - stages of negative formation
1 - Uses 'no' or 'not' at the beginning/end of the sentence. 2 - Moves 'no/not' inside the sentence. 3 - Attaches the negative to auxiliary verbs and the copula verb 'be' securely.
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What are the pronouns of Bellugi?
1 - The child uses their own name. 2 - The child recognises the I/me pronouns that they can be used at different place within a sentence. 3 - The child uses them according to whether they're in the subject/object position within a sentence.
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What is the post-telegraphic stage?
- Remaining function words are acquired & used appropriately. - Can write sentences, joined together with conjunctions. - Manipulate verb forms more accurately. - Construct longer noun phrase.
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What is over-generalisation?
Right rule, wrong place (Chomsky). Example - 'I runned' 'mouses'
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What are the 4 pragmatics?
Implicature, Inference, politeness and conversational management/turn taking.
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What is politeness theory?
Levinson and Brown, face, positive: individual desires, social approval and being included.
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What are the 5 context questions?
Who is participating? Setting? Relationship between speakers? Development stage? Other factors, e.g. culture, books and tv?
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Who was the theorist of social development?
Vygotsky
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CDS
Child directed speech
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What are the 4 characteristics of CDS?
Repetition/repeated sentence, a higher pitch, use of the present tense, one-word utterances/short elliptical sentences
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are constant sounds affected by?

Back

Manner of articulation (control of air stem), Place of articulation (e.g lips, tongue, teeth, ruff of the mouth) and if sound is voiced or unvoiced by the vibrations in the throat.

Card 3

Front

What are plosives? Give examples.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are nasals? Give 2 examples.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are fricatives? Give 2 examples.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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