English Reformation

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What was Martin Luther's social stance?
Social conserative
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What did Martin Luther feel about printing of the Bible in German?
Not to attack the social order but to legitimate his views
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When was Lollardy significant?
1520s
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What did the Lollards, like later Protestants, want?
Bible in English
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Was it dangerous for Lollard communities to have manuscripts of venacular Bibles?
Yes
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What kind of people were Lollards?
Middling sorts - merchants, well off artisans etc. Relatively powerful within their village, what would be called the better sort of people by the end of the 16th century
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Where was heretical belief largely to be found?
Cloth production areas
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What connected the industrial textile villages?
Roman roads - economic movement due to need for traffic of goods through village
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What was different about weaving communities to rural areas?
Tended to exhibit higher literacy
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What was there a slippage between in the earliest stages of the English Reformation in the 1520s and 1530s?
Late medieval Lollardy and early Protestantism
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1521
Henry VIII granted title of Defender of the Faith as denounced Luther
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In Norwich what was the effect of the dissolution of the monasteries?
To release a third of all land
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What was the second largest city in the British Isles at the time of the dissolution?
Norwich
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Plgrimage of Grace
Five Wounds of Christ
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In what year was every parish church in England and Wales required to have a copy of the Bible in English?
1539
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What is historiography coming to argue?
Reason why Protestantism suceeded in long term was not so much that people welcomed it but that given a choice between secular and religious loyalties, the Crown was more important than papacy
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What did the rebels in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire in 1536 argue?
Claiming not to be against Henry VIII, only his advisers
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What did the Act for the Advancement of True Religion (1543) say?
Encouraged 'noble men and gentlemen' to read venacular Bible to household, no women or those below husbandmen should read the Bible or New Testament in English
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What is the Prayer Book Rebellion commonly seen as against?
Edward VI's increasingly Calvinist Reformation
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Name two people burnt by Mary I
Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley
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Approximately how many people were burnt during the reign of Mary I?
~400
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In the 1960s how did Dickens etc view Marian burning of heretics?
Profound oppression
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In 1970s how was Marian burning of heretics viewed?
'Only' 400 people and compare to French Civil Wars or cofnlict in Germany
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How did Scarisbruck etc view Marian burnings?
minor
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What is the issue with the 1970s view of Marian burnings?
400 people within short time is a large number executed for religious dissidence, plus was issue for those burnt!
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What is far more important to the future of Protestant Reformation than the burnings themselves?
How the repression was remembered
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What does an anti-popery woodcutting of Thomas Cranmer show?
Him putting his hand it to the fire because he had abjured his faith
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What is the protestantization thesis advanced by Patrick Collinson?
Protestant Reformation has to be understood in cultural terms. Long transformation in sense of religious loyalty. Change in mentalities and world view
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When was the German Peasants' War?
1525
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Why is the German Peasants' War not misnamed?
It was not just 1525, it was not just peasants and it was not just in Germany
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German Peasants War
Major popuar and urban rebellion in central Europe in support of radical reformation; vigorously repressed
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Kett's Rebellion
Norfolk, 1549
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Give an example from the articles of Kett's Rebellion
"We pray that all bondmen should be made free for God made all free with his precious blood spilling
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Oak of Reformation
Mousehold Heath (Kett's Rebellion)
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What do the German articles in 1525 and the Norfolk articles have in common?
Made use of Scripture as a way of unpicking social insubordination.
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What is the first key issue of Seminar 3?
How did ordinary men and women respond to the early stages (1532
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What did many people who saw the confusion regarding faith during the Reformation think?
"the devyll reyneth over us nowe"
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During the reformation could breaches of ecclesiastical discipline be taken as tantamount to heresy?
Yes
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Give an example of where breaches of ecclesiastical discipline was taken as tantamount to heresy
Freebarn's wife was taken before London city authorities in 1539 for breaking Lenten fast
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Give an example of the inflammatory effect of sermons upon volatile London society?
Iconoclasm against the celebrated rood at St Margaret Pattens on 22 May 1538
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When did Latimer preach at Paul's Cross against images?
21st May 1538
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What does an examination of lay subsidy assessments for London in 1536 and 1544 show? (personal wealth of 57/190 of laymen and women charged with heresy in 1540)
Rich adopted new ways as readily as poor - among indicted 1540 were lawyers from Inns of Court and people of considerable wealth as well as apprentices and servants
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Two people charged with heresy in London in 1540 had personal wealth above £500. Name them.
JOHn Browne and Eliz Statham
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What does Robert Hawkins argue?
Late Tudor religion and politics were shaped by lingering puritan distrust of those who had conformed during Marian persecution
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Within Norwich what percentage of people lived in urban centres?
25%
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What did Karl Marx argue about puritanism?
Religion of bourgeois
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Why was Karl Marx wrong?
In assumption that puritanism represented revolution and English Revolution as a class war
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What does Andy Wood argue about puritanism?
Marx's simple assumption that there is a relationship between puritanism and capitalism is true
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In which area were the most heretics burnt in Mary I's reign?
London followed by Kent
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What proportion of Marian martyrs were burned at Canterbury?
ONE in seven
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What is significant about the Marian martyrs from Kent?
Many, perhaps half, were from the villages and cloth towns of the Kentish weald. ALl but two laypeople, vast majority from lower orders
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What proportion of Kentish martyts were women?
Almost one in three
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Nationally, what percentage of Marian martyrs were female?
17%
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What does Eamon Duffy say about the significance of Kent?
"Kent almost certainly had a greater proportion of committed Protestants than any other part of England"
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Where was there a strong Lollard presence, discovered in a drive against heresy on behalf of Archbishop Warham in 1511?
Kent
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What does Patrick Collinson say about Protestantism?
"Protestants were a minority sect until well into Elizabeth's reign, with the 1570s forming a watershed."
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What does Diarmaid MacCulloch say about the use of the term Protestantism?
Anachronistic to use the term with definitional precision before reign of Edward VI
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What did an order issued by Henry VIII in June 1534 say?
For a year no one was to preach for or against purgatory, saint worship, clerical marriage, justification by faith, pilgrimage and miracles..
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What does Collinson remind about Henry VIII's religious policy?
Conservative triumph after fall of Cromwell should not be overexaggerated. Monasteries and shrines were not restored and Bible not remoed from parish churches
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Did the Six Articles uphold transubstantiation?
Yes but did not use the word itself
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What was significant about the wording in the Six Articles about confession?
Described confession to a priest as "expedient and necessary to be retained" rather than something commanded by the law of God
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What does the scale of popular involvement in the Pilgrimage of Grace suggest?
Widespread unease about Henrician religious policies as they impacted on arish leel
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What does Patrick Collinson suggest about 'real' reformation?
DID not hit English local communities until reign of Edward VI
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Robert Whiting has demonstrated that traditional devotions to images were thriving up to the mid-1530s, but how effective were the Injunctions?
Offerings to images virtually disappear from accounts after 1536, even before banned by 1538 Injunctions, and after 1538 no new images were purchased.
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Who did Mary I detest?
Cranmer - instrument of her own and her mother's humiliation
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Approximately how many fled England to Protestant towns abroad during the reign of Mary I?
1000 to Protestant towns of Franfkurt, Wesel, Geneva, Zurich, Strassburg and Emden
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Did Mary I's opposition strengthen Protestantism?
YES! Hooper and Ridley remembered not as scheming political opponents but as heroes dying in common case
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What does D.M. Pallisher say about the reception faced by Protestantism up to the 1570s?
"it should occasion no surprise that the reception of Protestantism, like that of any new belief or ideology, had an uneven impact"
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What does Keith Thomas emphasise about religious practice?
Not all Englishmen went to church and that "many of those who did went with considerable reluctance, and that a certain proportion remained.. utterly ignorant of the elementary tenets of Christian dogma"
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Where was recusant Catholicism created in the 1560s and 1570s by local clergy and migrant priests from the South?
Upland England
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By 1603 what percentage of secular priests were in the south-east and east
20%
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By 1603 what percentage of detected English recusants were in the south and south east?
14%
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By 1603 what percentage of detected English recusants were in the north?
48%
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By 1603 what percentage of priests to north?
38%
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In 1580 where were half of missionary priests working in England?
ESSEx, London and Thames Valley (only fifth of detected recusants)
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Why was there a geographical concentration of missionary priests that did not match recusant population?
Devote most attention to substantial gentry who weremost numerous in south and might spend part of year in London
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What did the instructions given to the first Jesuit missionaries in 1580 say?
PAY attention to gentry above all
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What does Christopher Haigh remind about the fact that so many Catholic missionaries went to south?
"the Jesuits and seminaries were men, not saints" (post-Armada, relative safety of manor houses)
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What has been one of the most pronounced shifts in British historical thought since the 1980s?
Re-interpretation of English Reformation. Once presented as swift and sure Protestant transformation that swept all of England has lately appeared as slow and not immediately successful
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Name two historians who present the English Reformation as speedy.
A.G. Dickens and Geoffrey Elton
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Patrick Collinson quote about 1570s
"it is only with the 1570s that the historically minded insomniac goes to sleep counting Catholics rather than Protestants, since only then did they begin to find themselves in a minority situation"
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What is the agreement about the "Catholic community" after 1559?
Sustained largely by members of the gentry within their households and reliant on the serices of household and roving priests
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What does Haigh say about he church?
"For a decade or more, the Church of England was a Protestant Church with many Catholic churches, for even longer, it was a Protestant Church with many Catholic, or at least conservative, clergy."
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Through the first half of the reign of Elizabeth I the shortage of Protestant preachers was acute. What does a survey of the diocese of Peterborough in 1560 show?
Only nine preachers among 166 clergy
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When was adolescence thought to last between?
Ages of 15 and 25
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What does Philip Hughes point out about the Marian martyrs?
38 of the 52 martyrs hose ages he ascertained had not reached fourteen until after the break with Rome, were not proerly apostate as had never renounced Catholicism
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did Martin Luther feel about printing of the Bible in German?

Back

Not to attack the social order but to legitimate his views

Card 3

Front

When was Lollardy significant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the Lollards, like later Protestants, want?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Was it dangerous for Lollard communities to have manuscripts of venacular Bibles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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