English Language- Spoken Language

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Accent
The distinctive way an English speaker from a particuar region pronounces words
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Adjancey pair
Dialogue that follows a set pattern e.g. when speakers greet each other
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Adjancey pairs
Pairs of utterances that form the building blocks of conversation
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Anaphora
When a word(usually pronoun) refers back to something or someone that has already been mentioned e.g. Barrie can't come because he's ill.
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Anglo-Saxon lexis
Words that derive from old English
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Back-Channelling
A kind of feedback in spoken language that supports the person speaking and shows that what is being said is understood.
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Clipping
When a shortened version of a word becomes a word in its own right e.g. demo, phone
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Closed Question
Short answered question.
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Code-switching
Speakers using different variations of English depending on who they are with
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Colloquialism
An informal word or phrase that wouldn't normally be used in formal written English e.g. How's it going mate?
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Contraction
A word that's formed by shortening and combining two or more words e.g. can't might've
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Deixis
A reference to something outside of the text or conversation that can't be understood unless you know the context
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Dialect
The distinctive lexis and grammar of a person's spoken English
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Dipthong
Two Voewel sounds that are joined togther to form one sound e.g. a in late is a dipthong as it starts with an /e/ phoneme and finishes on an /l/
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Dominance Model
Zimmerman and West's 1975 theory suggests that gender differences in conversations are due to make dominance in society.
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Elison
When sounds or syllables are slurred together in speech to make pronounciation easier and quicker.
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Ellipsis
When part of a grammatical structure is left out of the sentence without affecting the meaning.
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Eludication
Is when a speaker clarifies a point of information e.g. "what i means is" or "I think what Sarah means is"
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Estuary English
An accent that was orignially from the Thames Estuary area in London butis no heard outside the area and may be replacing RP as the country's most widespread form.
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Evaluating
Is when a speaker offers judgments by supporting or opposing what another speaker has said e.g. "yeah, you're right" or "that's rubbish"
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Exoporic reference
Referring to something outside a text e.g. that tree over there
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Face needs
Using language that caters for people's feelings
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False starts
Occur when an utterance is started in one way, is unfinished and then completely abandomed for another strucutre: 'my mum won.t (.) well we want.."
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Feedback
Verbal and non-verbal signs that a person is listening to a speaker
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Filler
A sound produced by speakers to keep a conversation going and avoid silence
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Fillers
Are used to give a speaker thinking time "ummm.. " "errr.."
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Glottal stop
A sound is produced when the vocal cords interrupt the flow of air, often to replace a /t/ sound e.g. water become wa-uh
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Grice's maxims of...
Relevance, quality, quantity and manner.
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Hedges
Are linguistic forms such as "I think" "I'm sure", "you know" "sort of" and "perhaps" which express the speaker's certainty or uncertainty about the topic under discussion.
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Hedging
Word choices that show uncertainty in conversations e.g. probably, maybe
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Hesitations
Are sounds which aren't words which are used to fill pauses. In Britain, these sounds tend to be represented by 'er' 'erm' and 'emm'
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Idiolect
An individual's accent and dialect features, as a result of their personal upbringing and experience.
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Idiom
A saying that doesn't make sense if interpreted literally but is understood because it's commonly used e.g. I could eat a horse.
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Implication
When a meaning is suggested, rather than explicitly described.
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Initiators
Like "well", "OK", "right" signal that a person is about to speak.
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Interrogatives
A sentece or utterance that asks a question
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Interruptions
Are violations of the turn-taking rules of conversatiion
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Intonation
The pitch and tone of a speaker's voice e.g. rising intonation shows its a question
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Jargon
Specialist words that are used by a particular social or occupational group that may not be understood by a non member.
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Latch-on
Occurs when the second speaker leaps in immediately after the first speaker has completed an utterance without even time for a micropause.
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Latinate lexis
Words that derive from Latin
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Liaison
When a normally silent final consonant is produced between words or syllables to make them run together.
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Minimal Responses
Such as "mm" or "yeah"are a way of indicating the listener's positive attention to the speaker so supporting the speaker in their choice of topic. A delayed minimal response may signify a lack of interest or understanding.
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Monitoring features
Such as "you know" and "do you know what i mean?" are used by the speaker to check that what she/he is saying is being heard.
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Monologue
The utterances of one speaker or performer to an audience
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Negative Politeness
Being indirect/unwilling to presume anything in conversation.
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Neologisms
New words, often created by advances in things like technology and science.
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Non-fluent pausing
Occurs in the middle of a structure where no punctuation would occur i writing: "It's Southall's er (.) goal kick"
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Non-verbal communication
Using gestures, expressions and body language to communicate instead of or as well as words e.g. positive face needs
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Open Question
Question seeking a lengthy response
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Overlaps
Are instances of slight over anticipation by the next speaker, with the next speaker beginning to speak at the very end of the current speaker's turn.
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Paralinguistic features
Gestures or facial expressions that emphasise words of phrases in spoken communication
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Pause Fillers
Are a way of filling an awkward silence with extra words, e.g. "well" "sort-of" "like" etc.
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Phatic Language
Expressions that have a social function rather than expressing a serious meaning e.g. "hello"
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Positive politeness
Showing a desire to be cooperative in conversation.
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Pragmatics
The study of how language functions in social situations.
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Prosody
Non-verbal aspects of speech like pace, stress, pitch, intonation, volume and pauses
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Received pronounciation (RP)
An accent traditionally associated with educated people and the upper class.
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Recycling
Is similar to repetition but involved a hitch in production where the intial sound(s) of a word are repeated before the speaker managed to get the word out.
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Redundancy
Is when a speaker gives more information than is strictly necessary.
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Referential language
Spoken lanuggae that refers to objects around the speakers
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Repetition
in this context, is unintentional and involves the repetition of identical words and structures next to each other "her pillow is her pillow"
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Rhetorical Question
A known answer question
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Self-corrections
Are where the speaker realises that he/she has made a mistake and corrects it.
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Simultaneous speech
Occurs when two or more people are speaking at the same time.
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Slang
Informal, non-standard vocabulary and casual speech,
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Sociolect
A variety of language used by a particular social group.
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Soliciting
Is when a speaker makes a specific demand of his/her listener e.g. "would you mind.."
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Tag questions
A question added to the end of a statement to encourage a response e.g. don't you think so?
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Tenor/Register
The relative formality of a text.
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Transactional language turn-taking
Making some sort of deal.
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Turn-taking
Is when two or more participants in a conversation take turns to respond apprioately to each others utterances.
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Unresponsiveness
A negative way of asserting control in conversations, either by witholding feedback or ignoring the other speaker entirely.
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Vague completers
Such as "and all that" or "and everything" are used to round off an utterance.
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Warranting
Is an expression of the degree of certainty a speaker feels about a subject using phrases such as "of course" "obviously" "indeed".
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Double-Negative
a negative statement containing two negative elements (for example he didn't say nothing)
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Signal disclouse/ Preclosing sequence
Ends the conversation "Yeah take care" "Bye"
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Dialogue that follows a set pattern e.g. when speakers greet each other

Back

Adjancey pair

Card 3

Front

Pairs of utterances that form the building blocks of conversation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When a word(usually pronoun) refers back to something or someone that has already been mentioned e.g. Barrie can't come because he's ill.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Words that derive from old English

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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