English Language- Spoken Language

The distinctive way an English speaker from a particuar region pronounces words
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Adjancey pair
Dialogue that follows a set pattern e.g. when speakers greet each other
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Adjancey pairs
Pairs of utterances that form the building blocks of conversation
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When a word(usually pronoun) refers back to something or someone that has already been mentioned e.g. Barrie can't come because he's ill.
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Anglo-Saxon lexis
Words that derive from old English
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A kind of feedback in spoken language that supports the person speaking and shows that what is being said is understood.
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When a shortened version of a word becomes a word in its own right e.g. demo, phone
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Closed Question
Short answered question.
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Speakers using different variations of English depending on who they are with
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An informal word or phrase that wouldn't normally be used in formal written English e.g. How's it going mate?
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A word that's formed by shortening and combining two or more words e.g. can't might've
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A reference to something outside of the text or conversation that can't be understood unless you know the context
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The distinctive lexis and grammar of a person's spoken English
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Two Voewel sounds that are joined togther to form one sound e.g. a in late is a dipthong as it starts with an /e/ phoneme and finishes on an /l/
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Dominance Model
Zimmerman and West's 1975 theory suggests that gender differences in conversations are due to make dominance in society.
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When sounds or syllables are slurred together in speech to make pronounciation easier and quicker.
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When part of a grammatical structure is left out of the sentence without affecting the meaning.
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Is when a speaker clarifies a point of information e.g. "what i means is" or "I think what Sarah means is"
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Estuary English
An accent that was orignially from the Thames Estuary area in London butis no heard outside the area and may be replacing RP as the country's most widespread form.
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Is when a speaker offers judgments by supporting or opposing what another speaker has said e.g. "yeah, you're right" or "that's rubbish"
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Exoporic reference
Referring to something outside a text e.g. that tree over there
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Face needs
Using language that caters for people's feelings
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False starts
Occur when an utterance is started in one way, is unfinished and then completely abandomed for another strucutre: 'my mum won.t (.) well we want.."
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Verbal and non-verbal signs that a person is listening to a speaker
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A sound produced by speakers to keep a conversation going and avoid silence
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Are used to give a speaker thinking time "ummm.. " "errr.."
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Glottal stop
A sound is produced when the vocal cords interrupt the flow of air, often to replace a /t/ sound e.g. water become wa-uh
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Grice's maxims of...
Relevance, quality, quantity and manner.
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Are linguistic forms such as "I think" "I'm sure", "you know" "sort of" and "perhaps" which express the speaker's certainty or uncertainty about the topic under discussion.
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Word choices that show uncertainty in conversations e.g. probably, maybe
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Are sounds which aren't words which are used to fill pauses. In Britain, these sounds tend to be represented by 'er' 'erm' and 'emm'
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An individual's accent and dialect features, as a result of their personal upbringing and experience.
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A saying that doesn't make sense if interpreted literally but is understood because it's commonly used e.g. I could eat a horse.
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When a meaning is suggested, rather than explicitly described.
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Like "well", "OK", "right" signal that a person is about to speak.
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A sentece or utterance that asks a question
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Are violations of the turn-taking rules of conversatiion
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The pitch and tone of a speaker's voice e.g. rising intonation shows its a question
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Specialist words that are used by a particular social or occupational group that may not be understood by a non member.
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Occurs when the second speaker leaps in immediately after the first speaker has completed an utterance without even time for a micropause.
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Latinate lexis
Words that derive from Latin
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When a normally silent final consonant is produced between words or syllables to make them run together.
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Minimal Responses
Such as "mm" or "yeah"are a way of indicating the listener's positive attention to the speaker so supporting the speaker in their choice of topic. A delayed minimal response may signify a lack of interest or understanding.
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Monitoring features
Such as "you know" and "do you know what i mean?" are used by the speaker to check that what she/he is saying is being heard.
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The utterances of one speaker or performer to an audience
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Negative Politeness
Being indirect/unwilling to presume anything in conversation.
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New words, often created by advances in things like technology and science.
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Non-fluent pausing
Occurs in the middle of a structure where no punctuation would occur i writing: "It's Southall's er (.) goal kick"
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Non-verbal communication
Using gestures, expressions and body language to communicate instead of or as well as words e.g. positive face needs
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Open Question
Question seeking a lengthy response
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Are instances of slight over anticipation by the next speaker, with the next speaker beginning to speak at the very end of the current speaker's turn.
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Paralinguistic features
Gestures or facial expressions that emphasise words of phrases in spoken communication
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Pause Fillers
Are a way of filling an awkward silence with extra words, e.g. "well" "sort-of" "like" etc.
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Phatic Language
Expressions that have a social function rather than expressing a serious meaning e.g. "hello"
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Positive politeness
Showing a desire to be cooperative in conversation.
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The study of how language functions in social situations.
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Non-verbal aspects of speech like pace, stress, pitch, intonation, volume and pauses
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Received pronounciation (RP)
An accent traditionally associated with educated people and the upper class.
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Is similar to repetition but involved a hitch in production where the intial sound(s) of a word are repeated before the speaker managed to get the word out.
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Is when a speaker gives more information than is strictly necessary.
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Referential language
Spoken lanuggae that refers to objects around the speakers
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in this context, is unintentional and involves the repetition of identical words and structures next to each other "her pillow is her pillow"
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Rhetorical Question
A known answer question
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Are where the speaker realises that he/she has made a mistake and corrects it.
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Simultaneous speech
Occurs when two or more people are speaking at the same time.
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Informal, non-standard vocabulary and casual speech,
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A variety of language used by a particular social group.
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Is when a speaker makes a specific demand of his/her listener e.g. "would you mind.."
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Tag questions
A question added to the end of a statement to encourage a response e.g. don't you think so?
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The relative formality of a text.
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Transactional language turn-taking
Making some sort of deal.
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Is when two or more participants in a conversation take turns to respond apprioately to each others utterances.
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A negative way of asserting control in conversations, either by witholding feedback or ignoring the other speaker entirely.
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Vague completers
Such as "and all that" or "and everything" are used to round off an utterance.
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Is an expression of the degree of certainty a speaker feels about a subject using phrases such as "of course" "obviously" "indeed".
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a negative statement containing two negative elements (for example he didn't say nothing)
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Signal disclouse/ Preclosing sequence
Ends the conversation "Yeah take care" "Bye"
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Dialogue that follows a set pattern e.g. when speakers greet each other


Adjancey pair

Card 3


Pairs of utterances that form the building blocks of conversation


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


When a word(usually pronoun) refers back to something or someone that has already been mentioned e.g. Barrie can't come because he's ill.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Words that derive from old English


Preview of the back of card 5
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