English Language key words

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Deviant spelling
Spelling that is non-standard but used deliberatly for effect.
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Non-standard English
Words, phrases and constructions not usually seen in formal texts.
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Paralinguistics
Things that add to the meaning of a text that aren't actually language, e.g. graphology, NVC and prosodics.
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Prosodic elements
Paralinguistics vocal elements ofspoken language used to provide emphasis or other effects.
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Triad
A pattern of three words or phrases.
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Synthetic personality
The technique where a writer/speaker uses the second-person pronoun to synthesise or fake a personal relation to the audience.
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Self-repair
When a speaker correct him/herself.
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Idiolect
An individual style of speaking, made up choices in all frameworks.
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Computer-mediated communication (CMC)
Communication achieved by use of computer technology.
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Adjaceny pair
Two utterances by different speakers that have a natural and logical link and complete an idea together.
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Cohesion
A measure of how well a text fits together as a whole.
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Coherence
A measure of how a text makes sense.
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Accommodation
The process of adapting one's speech to make it more or less similar to that of other participants in a conversation.
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Face
The persona or role a person project or acts out in a conversation.
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Convergence
When a person's speech patterns become more like those of the other person in a conversation.
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Divergence
When a person's speech patterns become more individualised and lesslike those of the other person in a conversation.
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Upwards Convergence/Divergence
Movement towards Standard English.
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Downwards Convergence/Divergence
Movement away from Standard English.
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Reveieved pronuciation (RP)
The 'poshest' UK accent.
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Standard English (SE)
A universally accepted dialect of English that carries a degree of prestige.
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Facework
The way people work together to protect and support each other's 'faces' in conversation.
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Positive face need
Our need to be liked and feel part of a group.
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Negative face need
Our need to be allowed independence and to do our own thing.
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Off-record
Dropping a hint, saying something without really saying it.
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Positive politeness
Strategies that emphasise social closeness.
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Negative politeness
Strategies that recognise the independence or the status of the person you are speaking to.
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Intonation
The way the pitch of our voices goes up and down as we speak.
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Tail
A word or phrase added on to the end of a sentence.
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Collocation
A set of words, often a pair or phrase, which has become strongly associated.
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Discourse marker
A word or phrase used to gain attention and to show the topic is being changed.
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Phonolohy
The study of the sounds used in a particular language.
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Assonance
The repetition of vowel sounds, or of similar vowel sounds.
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Modal auxilaries
Will, would, can, could, should, may,might, ought.
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Head
A repition of part of a sentence at the start of it.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Words, phrases and constructions not usually seen in formal texts.

Back

Non-standard English

Card 3

Front

Things that add to the meaning of a text that aren't actually language, e.g. graphology, NVC and prosodics.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Paralinguistics vocal elements ofspoken language used to provide emphasis or other effects.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A pattern of three words or phrases.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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