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Amelioration
A word takes on a more positive meaning than it had previously. Pretty (meant "sly" now means "attractive"
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Phonology: Sounds in English are produced as a result of air from the lungs coming up through the vocal cords and being manipulated in various ways.
Phonolgy looks at the sound system, whereas phonetics deals with the actual sounds of speech, considering how souds are physically articulated and language phenomena such as accents.
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Chomsky - Language Acquisition Device - •The capacity to acquire language is innate within humans. NATIVIST THEORY: •Humans have an inbuilt capability to acquire language ( FOR: children often experience the same stages of development)
Humans have an inbuilt capability to acquire language ( FOR: children often experience the same stages of development at similar paces and often make their own rules for language or overgeneralise - AGAINST:children need alot of imput to use language
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Traditionally known as 'doing' words - this does not cover all their possible meanings - they express actions and states.
Stative Verbs - express states of being in which there is no obvious action. they are not often used as commands e.g. to know, to believe, to remember, to realise
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Dynamic Verbs - express a wide range of actions. they can be used as commands and occur after the verb 'to be' with an 'ing' ending - think, see, buy etc.
Transitive Verbs - have to be followed by an object to complete their meaning. 'i carried the baby' 'we can make a cake'
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Intransitive Verbs - do not need to be followed by an object to make sense. many verbs describing position, like sit and lie or motion like to run, or to go are intransitive.
Types of Verbs = Lexical and Auxiliary
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Lexical verbs express meaning in a verb phrase 'the boy ran to school'
Auxiliary can be used to construct timescales, questions and emphasis. 'i have gone'
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•children all around the world seem to acquire language by passing through a similar set of 'stages'
time taken between stages can vary, but the stages themselves and the order in which they happen appear to be universal
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everyone needs to acquire a certain minimum ability of language
•an active adult vocabulary can reach 50,000 or more words and a passive ability to understand half as many again
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•there are at least a thousand aspects of grammatical construction, dealing with the rules; some are specific governing sentence and word formation, there are the prosodic features of pitch, loudness, speed and rhythm which convey meaning
•there is a large number of conventions governing ways in which varieties of the language differ
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•the way you learn a 2nd language differs from the way you learn a 1st
•most children learn to talk by the time they are 5 on a wide variety of topics using language that is clear, rich in vocabulary and varied in sentence patterns
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BEHAVIOURIST- CREATED BY B.F. SKINNER - Believes a newborn child is a 'blankslate' - acquires language through its environment. - TWO MAIN WAYS: Imitaition and POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT i.e. praise/correction.
THEORY DOESN'T ACCOUNT FOR: SPEED CHILDREN LEARN LANGUAGE, LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY, VIRTUOS ERRORS
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BEHAVIOURISM - Skinner (1957)
Children acquire language by Imitatiing the speech of others. He/She receives praise and encouragement when repeated successfully.
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Skinner regards langugage as similar other kinds of human behaviour. Success = Reward. The child sees the parents are happy and approving = REINFORCEMENT
Evaluation: Phonological development and acquiring of words = imitation playing a part. Children develop regional accents showing they imitate sounds around them.
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Evaluation: Phonological development and acquiring of words = imitation playing a part. Children develop regional accents showing they imitate sounds around them.
There would be more variation between children if this theory was accurate. Cannot acquire grammar through imitation and have not been encouraged to make mistakes.
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Michael Halliday Taxonomy
Instrumental - language used to fufil a need on the part of the speaker - directly concerned with obtaining food , drink and comfort
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Regulartory - language used to influence the behaviour of others - intially an extension of this persuading , commanding and requesting other people to do things you want
Ineractional - language used to develop social relationships and ease the process of interaction - the phatic dimenstions of talk
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Personal - language used to express the personal preferences and identiy of the speaker - sometimes refered to as the here i am function - announcing onself to the world
Representational - language used to exchange infomation - relaying or requesting infomation
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Heuristic - Language used to learn and explore the enviroment - using language to learn - may be questions and answers
Imaginative - language used to explore the imagination - may also accomplany play as children create
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Stages of Development
Pre-verbal Stage - Vegetative (0-4 months), Cooing (4-7 months), Babbling (6-12 months), Proto-words (9-12 months) - all approximations as not all children develop at the same rate.
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Lexical and Grammatical Stages of Development
Holophrastic/one-word (12-18 months)
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Two-word (18-24 months)
Telegraphic (24-36 months) three and more word utterances
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Lexical and semantical development
At the age of 2, children have usually learnt about 200 words.
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The majority of children's vocabulary are concrete nouns, actions and sometimes interactional.
Underextension: When a word is given a narrower meaning than it has in adult language. For example, children naming their family pet "the dog" but not applying it to other dogs.
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Overextension: When a word is given a broader and general meaning than it should have. For example, using the word "daddy" to refer to children's fathers but also applying it to other men and using the word "dog" to refer to other animals.
Hypernyms: broader meaning words belonging to a category, e.g. furniture, food.
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Allan Cruttendon (1974)
• Compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results from listening to the scores. Children up to 7 less accurate.
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Jean Berko and Roger Brown (1960s)
• It was to see how phonological errors link to children's understanding as well as ability to imitate the language surrounding them. Known as the 'fis' phenomenon
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Katherine Nelson (1973)
• identified four categories for first words: naming, actions/events, describing/modifying things, personal/social words. 60% of first words were names, Verbs formed the second largest group, Modifers came next, Personal/social words made up 8%.
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B.F Skinner
• are conditioned into using right language based on whether they recieve positive/negative reinforcement after copying adult's behaviour
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Eve Clark
her study of first words found that children base overextensions on: the physical qualities of objects, features such as taste, sound, movement, shape, size and texture.
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Leslie Rescorla
three types of overextension: categorical, analogical, mismatch statements
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Jean Aitchinson
connects children's lexical and semantical development
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Jean Piaget
20th cent Swiss pyschologist - views have been very influential, Children are active learners who use environment and social interactions to shape…
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IDIOLECT
the unique combination of words, expressions and constructions that an individual habitually uses. If you have ever mimicked a teacher's habitual way of speaking to a class, you have noticed features of his/her idiolect.
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SOCIOLECT
the kind of language we draw on to display our membership of specific social groups i.e. age, gender, social class, ethnicity, occupation, interests.
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DIALECT
the accent, lexis and grammar of a specific geographical area
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PHATICS
turns designed to maintain cooperation and respect with the other speaker.
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TRANSIENT
Time bound
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PROSODIC SIGNALS
para linguistic vocal elements i.e. intonation, pitch
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PERSON DEIXIS
I, you, we
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SPATIAL DEIXIS
here, there, left, right.
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TEMPORAL DEIXIS
now, then, today.
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ABSTRACT NOUNS
(any nouns you can't touch) - anger, dreams, hope
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PROPER NOUN
(starts with a capital letter) - Ellie (name)
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COMMON NOUN
Dog
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CONCRETE noun - dog/table.
DECLARATIVE-statement.
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INTERROGATIVE- question.
IMPERATIVE- command.
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EXCLAMATIVE- exclamation.
SUBJECT- what the sentence is about/ the main focus, the person/noun doing the verb.
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CLAUSE- the part of the sentence which can make sense on its own. Include subject, noun.
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE- the part of the sentence which, once the conjunctive is taken away, will not make sense on its own. Less important.
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FRAGMENT- a piece of something; not whole (of a sentence)
SIMPLE SENTENCE- contains one clause.
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COMPOUND SENTENCE- contains two/ more clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions.
COMPLEX SENTENCE- contains a main clause and a subordinate clause.
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DETERMINERS- determine what we are talking about i.e. the
MODIFIERS- describe a word or make…
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Phonolgy looks at the sound system, whereas phonetics deals with the actual sounds of speech, considering how souds are physically articulated and language phenomena such as accents.

Back

Phonology: Sounds in English are produced as a result of air from the lungs coming up through the vocal cords and being manipulated in various ways.

Card 3

Front

Humans have an inbuilt capability to acquire language ( FOR: children often experience the same stages of development at similar paces and often make their own rules for language or overgeneralise - AGAINST:children need alot of imput to use language

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Stative Verbs - express states of being in which there is no obvious action. they are not often used as commands e.g. to know, to believe, to remember, to realise

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Transitive Verbs - have to be followed by an object to complete their meaning. 'i carried the baby' 'we can make a cake'

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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