English Language Child Language Acquisition (3)

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What is Bee's definition of a word?
A word is any sound or set of sounds that is used consistently to refer to some thing, action or quality
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Proto words
Words that have meaning but usually only between carer and child. To others the meaning will be unclear
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What are Nelson's different groups of proto words?
Naming things/people, Actions/events, Describing/modifying things, Personal/social words
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What was the largest group of words in her sample?
Names (60%), Actions, Modifiers, Personal/Social (8%)
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Overextension
Using the same word for objects with similar qualities
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Mismatch
Words used to label objects that have no apparent connection/logic (25%)
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Categorical overextension
Name for one category is used for all members of the category (60%)
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Analogical overextension
Word for an object in one category is used for one in a different category (15%)
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Underextension
Reduction/narrowing of meaning: object only applies to the child
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"dada" Mother answering door for the milkman
Categorical
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"moon" pointing at birthday cake
Analogical
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"Doggy" pointing at olives in a bowl
Mismatch
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"shoe" used only for the child's own shoe
Underextension
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"Allgone"
Holophrase
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List Halliday's functions
Instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, representational, imaginative, heuristic
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Instrumental
fulfill a need eg. 'want milk'
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Regulatory
influence the behaviour of others eg. 'pick up'
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Interactional
develop and maintain social relationships eg. 'love you'
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Personal
convey individual opinions, ideas and personal identity eg. 'me like Charlie and Lola'
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Representational
convey facts and information eg. 'it hot'
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Imaginative
create an imaginary world and may be seen in play predominantly eg. 'me shopkeeper'
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Heuristic
learn about the environment eg. 'wassat?'
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List Dore's functions
Labelling, repeating, answering, requesting action, calling, greeting, protesting, practising
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Labelling
Naming a person, object or thing
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Repeating
repeating an adult word or utterance
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Answering
responding to an utterance of another speaking
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Requesting action
asking for something to be done for them
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Calling
getting attention by shouting
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Greeting
greeting someone or something
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Protesting
Objecting to requests from others
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Practising
Using language when no adult is present
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Egocentric speech (Piaget)
the running discourse style of speech used by children where no listener is directly addressed and the talk is focused on the child's activity. Self guidance
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CDS
Child Directed Speech
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Features of CDS
repetition/repeated sentence features, high pitch, interrogatives, diminutive forms/one word utterances, child's name rather than pronouns, present tense, fewer verbs/modifiers, concrete nouns, expansions, recasts, framing, exaggerated pauses
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Expansions
the development of a child's utterance into a longer, more meaningful form
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Recasts
the commenting on, extending and rephrasing of a child's utterance
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Framing
repetition of the same word/phrase in a different context
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Diminutive words/forms
addition of a diminutive suffix to the end of a word eg. 'doggie'
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Proto words

Back

Words that have meaning but usually only between carer and child. To others the meaning will be unclear

Card 3

Front

What are Nelson's different groups of proto words?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the largest group of words in her sample?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Overextension

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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