English Language and Literature Key Terminology and Theories

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What is the expected schema?
The expected form of the conversation
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What are Grice's Maxims?
Quality, Quantity, Relevance and Manner
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What are Lakoff's three strategies?
Do not impose, give options, make your receiver feel good
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What are Leech's six maxims?
Tact, generosity, approbation, modesty, agreement and sympathy
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What is approbation?
Minimise dispraise to the listener
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What is agreemeent?
Minimise disagreement
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What is stichomythia?
Dialogue in which characters speak alternate lines of verse
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What is foregrounding?
Use of grammar/ordering to give precedence to one word or phrase
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What is Dominance Theory?
Since men interrupt more often, they are dominating or attempting to do so.
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Who came up with Dominance Theory?
Zimmerman and West
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What are fricatives?
f souns
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What are plosives?
p b t d k g etc
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What are sibilants?
s/sh (softer sound)
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What is Labov's six part structure?
Abstract, orientation, complicating action, evaluation, result/resolution, coda
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Labov - Abstract
What is the story about?
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Labov - Orientation
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Labov- Complicating Action
Then what?
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Labov - Evaluation
How is it interesting?
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Labov - Result/Resolution
What finally happened
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Labov - Coda
Story finished
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Who developed Communication Accomodation Theory?
Howard Giles
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What is the focus of Communication Accomodationn Theory?
The links between "language, context and identity."
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Communication Accommodation Theory - Convergence
Convergence refers to the process through which an individual shifts his speech patterns in interaction so that more closely resemble speech patterns of other speaker.
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How can speakers converge?
Use of language, pronunciation, pause, utterance lengths, non verbal behaviours
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Why do people use convergence?
Based on their perceptions of others, as well as what they are able to infer about them and their backgrounds
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How can the use of convergence influence opinions of a speaker?
Can create more favourable appraisal, when convergence perceived positively likely to enhance conversation and attraction between listener and speaker
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What can convergence be said to reflect?
an "individual's desire for social approva@
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What increases the level of convergence?
Probability of future interactions, the social status of the addressee and interpersonal variability for need of social approval
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What is the influence of status on the likelihood of convergence?
Individuals are more likely to converge to the individual with the higher status
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What are the benefits of converging?
Increases effectiveness of communication which lowers uncertainty and increases mutual understanding
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Communication Accomodation Theory - Overaccomodation
Some perceive convergence as patronising so it can detract from communication
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What are the types of overaccomodation?
Sensory overaccomodation, dependency overacomodation and intergroup overaccomodation
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What is sensory overaccomodation?
When an individual thinks he is being accomodative to someone's linguistic or physical disability but goes too far
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What is dependency overaccomodation?
When speaker places listener in lower status role so appears dependent on speaker and understands speaker is primary speaker in conversation
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What does intergroup overaccomodation involve?
Manipulating people based on general stereotype instead of as an individual.
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What is the cause of intergroup accomodation?
Socially characterised stereotypes
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What is an example of overaccomodation?
The way that nurses may speak to elderly patients, using baby talk
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Communication Accomodation theory - Divergence
Where a member of a speech community accentuates linguistic differences between himself and other participant.
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What does divergence usually represent?
A desire to emphasise group dstinctiveness in a positive manner
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When does divergence usually take place?
When an individual perceives interaction as an intergroup process rather than an individual one
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What is the impact of divergence?
Helps sustain positive image of group, strengthening social identity and helps maintain cultural identity
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When might divergence be used?
To contrast self images when other person member of undesirable group and way to indicate power or status when wish to render other individual less powerful
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Face-threatening acts - Brown and Levinson
Positive and negative face exist universally.
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What is a face threatening acts?
Damages the face of the addressee or speaker by acting in opposition to the wants and desires of the other.
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What are positive face needs?
Want to be liked and valued
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What are negative face defences?
Do not want to be imposed on or told what to do
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What is positive impoliteness?
Used to damage positive face wants
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What are examples of positive impoliteness?
Deny common ground, ignore/snub the other, sensitive topics, obscure language, seek disagreement, call names
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What is a face-saving act emphasising positive face?
Show solidarity
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What is a face-saving act emphasising negative face?
Concern about imposing - e.g. 'sorry to bother you'
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What are examples of negative impoliteness?
Frighten, scorn, condescend, ridicule, invade space of
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are Grice's Maxims?


Quality, Quantity, Relevance and Manner

Card 3


What are Lakoff's three strategies?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are Leech's six maxims?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is approbation?


Preview of the front of card 5
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