English Language and Gender- Theories

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Keith and Shuttleworth- Women
Women- talk more than men, talk too much, politer, indecisive/hesitant, complain and nag, ask more questions, support eachother are more cooperative.
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Keith and Shuttleworth- Men
Men- Swear more, don't talk about emotions, talk about sport more, talk about women and machines in the same way, insult eachother frequently, competitive in conversation, dominate conversations, speak with authority, give commands and interrupt
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Jespersen
Women talk alot, use intensifiers (so and very), use empty adjectives, use half finished sentences- don't think about what they say before they say it,
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Robin Lakoff
Women speak less frequently, use minimal responses, use proper grammar and English, Use tag questions, special lexicon, use more intensifiers and empty adjectives
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O'Barr and Atkins
Found that Lakoff's research fitted both men and women, and it isnt 'womens language' it is 'powerless language'
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Dominance Model- Zimmerman and West
Men interrupt more in mixed sex conversations, which therefore means men are more dominating, parents interrupt daughters more than sons, and fathers interrupt more than mothers
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Dominance Model- Dale Spender
there is a patriarchal order, she believes it is hard to change due to the world we live in
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Dominance Model- Fisherman
Women ask questions because they are powerful, not because they are insecure. Men speak twice as long as women in mixed sex conversations.
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Coates
Men reject a conversation topic introduced by women, men discuss male topics 'sport, business, economics, politics etc', Women are more likely to initiate conversations than men
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Difference Model- Deborah Tannen
Status vs Support, Independence vs Intimacy, Advice vs Understanding, Information vs Feelings, Orders vs Proposals, Conflict vs Compromise
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Deborah Jones
House Talk, Scandal, Bitching and Chatting
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Derogatory Terms
220 terms for premiscuous Female, 20 for a Male- Spender 1980
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Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis
The nature of a language influences the thought of its speakers, you cannot represent the world with any language because every language will condition the thoughts of the reader
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Accomodation Theory
Howard Giles- Diverging and Converging to bring yourself closer or to distance yourself from somebody
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Politeness Theory
Positive and Negative Face, Face threatening act. Face- A persons self esteem or emotional needs.
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Semantic Derrogation
Negative meaning or connotation that some lexical items have attached to them
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Semantic Deterioration
When negative connotations become attached to certain lexical items
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Grice's Maxims
Quantity, Quality, Relevance and Manner
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Men- Swear more, don't talk about emotions, talk about sport more, talk about women and machines in the same way, insult eachother frequently, competitive in conversation, dominate conversations, speak with authority, give commands and interrupt

Back

Keith and Shuttleworth- Men

Card 3

Front

Women talk alot, use intensifiers (so and very), use empty adjectives, use half finished sentences- don't think about what they say before they say it,

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Women speak less frequently, use minimal responses, use proper grammar and English, Use tag questions, special lexicon, use more intensifiers and empty adjectives

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Found that Lakoff's research fitted both men and women, and it isnt 'womens language' it is 'powerless language'

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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