English Language - Acquisition

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Deletion
Leaving out the final consonant - "Do(g)"
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Substitution
One sound for another (Especially hard sounds "SH" - "pip" "Ship"
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Addition
Extra Vowel sound to end of words - Creates CVCV - Easier - "Doggie"
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Assimilation
Repeating whole syllable - "Mama , Dada"
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Consonant cluster reductions
Clusters difficult to pronounce so reduce - "Pider" "Spider"
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Deletion of Unstressed syllables
Omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words - "Nana" "Banana"
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A.1/4 Vegative
Sounds - Cry, Gurgles - (0-4 months)
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A.2/4 Cooing
Play with sounds - Grunts, sighs, vowel coos, laugh, consonants, vowels,pitch change,loudness
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A.3/4 Babbling
Extended sounds resemble syllabic sequences - Repeated patterns, relate to own language - Reduplicate words (baba) varied sounds (agu) (6-12 months)
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A.4/4 Proto-words
Word like vocalisation - (9-12 months)
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Vowel
Produced without blocking air flow
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Consonant
Produced by blocking flow (Fully or partially)
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Voiced
Uses Vocal cords
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Unvoiced
Vocal cords not used
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Dipthong
Blend of Vowels sounds
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B.1/3 Vocative (First words)
Word to address Person (Mummy)
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B.2/3 Content Word (First words)
Lexical Words - Nouns (Cat) , adjectives (Fat) , adverbs -ly usually, verbs (jump)
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B.3/3 Function (First words)
Grammatical relationship - Determiners (the), Preposition (on), auxiliary (must)
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Jean Aitchison's C.1/3 Labelling
Understanding that things can be labelled
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C.2/3 Packing
Explore Labels and what they apply - Over or under extensions can occur to understand the range in a words meaning
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C.3/3 Network - building
Make connections between words - understand similarities and opposites (lexical fields, synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms, hyponyms)
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Hyponymy
Hierarchical structure that exists between lexical items
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Hypernym
Top-ranking word - generic or more general (food, mammal, clothes)
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Hyponym
Subordinate word with more specific meaning (apple, lion, shirt)
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Grammatical Development D.1/4Holophrastic Stage
One word utterances (accompanied with gestures usually) "Nana" with point to banana - 12-18 months
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D.2/4 Two-word
Two words combined to create simple structures - Subject + Verb - Verb + Object (18-24 Months)
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D.3/4 Telegraphic
Three or more words joined, increasingly complex - Subject+Verb+Object, Subject+Verb+Complement, Subject+Verb+Adverbial (24-36 months)
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D.4/4 Post-telegraphic
Increasing awareness of grammatical rules - Say "Ran" instead of "Runned" (36+ Months)
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Subject + Verb + Complement
I am hungry. I am tired. We are tired. She isn't funny. It will be nice.
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Subject + Verb
She is, She Jump, I run, He sing, I dance.
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Verb + Object
Read Story, Draw picture, Eat apple, Drink Juice.
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Subject + Verb + Object
He paints picture, He cuts paper, I eat burger.
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Subject + Verb + Adverbial
He runs quickly, She paints nicely, I am usually.
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Free morpheme
Independent word that can stand on it's own - Apple, do
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Bound Morpheme
An Affix (prefix or suffix) that needs to be attached to another word - do(ing) apple(s)
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Instrumental
Wants to fufil a need - Want milk
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Regulatory
Influence behaviours of others - Pick ball up
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Interactional
Develop and maintain social relationships - I love you
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Personal
Convey individual options, ideas and personal identity - Me like charlie and lola
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Representational
Convey facts and information - It hot
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Imaginative
Create imaginary world - Me shopkeeper
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Heuristic
Learn about environment - What is that?
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Nativist
Humans have an inbuilt capacity to acquire language (LAD- Language acquisition device) - Noam Chomsky
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Behaviourist
Language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement - BF Skinner
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Social Interactionaist
Child language is developed through interaction with adults - Jerome Bruner
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Cognitive
Language acquisition is part of a wider development of understanding that develops - Jean Piaget
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Phoneme
One of the speech sounds of a language (English has 44)
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Grapheme
One of the written characters used to represent the sounds (Phonemes)
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Cohesion
Logical structure and organisation of a text (Texts need to cohere, otherwise it becomes very difficult for readers to make sense of them)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

One sound for another (Especially hard sounds "SH" - "pip" "Ship"

Back

Substitution

Card 3

Front

Extra Vowel sound to end of words - Creates CVCV - Easier - "Doggie"

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Repeating whole syllable - "Mama , Dada"

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Clusters difficult to pronounce so reduce - "Pider" "Spider"

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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