English Language

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Phoneme
Smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of language
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Phonetics
Study of sounds used in speech, how they are pronounced
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Lexis
Vocab/Words
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Semantics
Study of meaning
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Syntax
Word arrangement
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Morphology
Formation of words from smaller units called morphemes
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Phonology
Study of sound systems and how they communicate meaning
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Discourse
Stretch of communication
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Pragmatics
Factors that influence the choices that speakers make in their use of language- why we choose to say something and underlying understanding
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Chomsky LAD
Language Aquistion Device: Language is innate and brain had inbuilt capacity to acquire language
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Phonemic expansion
Variety of sounds produced increases
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Phonemic contraction
Variety of sounds is reduced to sounds of the main language
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Proto-Word
Invented word that has a consistent meaning
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Holophrase
A single word expressing a whole idea
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Skinner's Positive reinforcement
Behaviour is rewarded, verbal praise to encourge this behaviour to be repeated
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Bruner's Behaviourist theory LASS
Language is acquired through imitation
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Overextension
Word is used to label something is stretched to include things that arent usually part of that words meaning
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Underextension
Word used to label is reduced to include only part of its normal meaning
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Hyponymy
Hierarchical structure that exists between lexical items
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Hypernym
A word that is more generic or general and has specific words under it
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Hyponym
A more specific words within a category under a hypernym
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Deixis
Lexical items that point towards something and place words in context
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Piaget Cognative theory
Children only aquire more complex forms of lang when their intellectual development can cope. Advocates discovery learning (by doing things) thought shapes language
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Virtuous error
Syntactic errors made by young children which the non standard utterance reveals some understanding of standard syntax eventhough its incomplete
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Egosentric speech & environment
Language focused on child environment and activities
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Child Directed Speech CDS
Various speech patterns used by parents/caregivers when communicating with young children
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Expansion CDS
Development of a childs utterance into a longer more meaningful form
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Recast CDS
Commenting on, extending and rephrasing of a childs utterance
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LASS Language Aquistion Support System Bruner
Childs interaction with adults around them and how it supports language development
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Scaffolding CDS
Withdrawing support when the skill is mastered (missing out parts of sentence and getting them to fill it in)
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Bruner Shared Reading theory
Gain attention: getting the childs attention. Query: asking questions. Label: telling them what it is in the book. Feedback: respond to the childs utterances
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Grapheme
Written symbol, letter or combo that reps a phoneme
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Phonics
System of teaching reading and spelling that stresses basic symbol-sound relationships and their use in decoding words; used in early stages of reading
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Cueing
Stratergies used to help decode written texts
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Miscue
Errors made by children when reading
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Study of sounds used in speech, how they are pronounced

Back

Phonetics

Card 3

Front

Vocab/Words

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Study of meaning

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Word arrangement

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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