Linguistic Features

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Linguistic Features
Frameworks of language and the building blocks of our texts
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The specific way words are pronounced according to a geographical region e.g. Geordie, Glaswegian
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Adjacency Pairs
Automatic Responses e.g. "Hello" "Goodbye"
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Back Channeling
Going back to something someone previously said, form of feedback
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Putting words together, used to appear more informal e.g. "can+not=can't"
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Deictic Utterance
Saying something without a gesture e.g. "that" "those"
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Laguage variety or a geographical region or social background, different forms of grammar, lexis, phonology and semantics.
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False Start
When someone starts to talk but stops mid sentence to correct themselves
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Letting someone know you are listening e.g. "Yeah" "oh yes" nodding or a noise e.g. laugh, sigh
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Something used to extend thinkng time e.g. "um" "err" "like" "y'know"
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Go around what you want to talk about
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Someone/somethingthat stops someone from talking
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Non-Fluency Features
Pauses, False Starts, Hesitations
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Paralinguistic Features
Gesturing, Body Language
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Gaps between speech shown in transcripts with (.) or ('number in seconds')
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Phatic Utterances/Expressions
Small talk e.g. talking aout the weather
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Relates to the implied meaning of lexis, reading between the lines. Hidden messages, underlying meanings
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Pragmatics - Politeness
Being tactful,modest and nice to others most relevant concept is "Face"
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Pragmatics - Politeness - Face
In pragmatics Face is a persons public self-image. This is the emotional and social sense of self that every person has and expects others to recognise
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Prosodic Features
Tone, Pitch, Volume, Stress
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False start/Fixing the way something has been said
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When the speaker repeats something
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False start/Fixing the way something has been said
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Talk of a group of people e.g. Ethnicity,age,gender,proffession and intelligence play a part in this
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Language that is unique to a person e.g. patterns in vocabulary, grammar and punctuaton
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Tag Questions
Tag a question onto the end of a statement e.g. "Isn't it?" "Dont you/I?"
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Topic Loop
Go back to the original topic e.g. "Anyway...."
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Topic Shift
Change in topic
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Turn Taking
Taking turns to talk - shows it is a cooperative conversation
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Shortening of a word e.g. " 'cos"
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Background -what we need to kow e.g. ages, gender,
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Topic Marker
Nouns and pronouns should link e.g. "My car" "It"
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Regster is better, sound more well off e.g. telephone voice
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Changing your language to fit in with the people you're talking to
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Speaks the most
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Presentational devices e.g. pictures
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Graphology - Grapheme
Letter or Letter combo that make up a sound
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Graphology - Symbols
Logos,Signs,Pictures - Iconic: direct representation, Symbolic:relies on association
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Graphology - Serif
Formal e.g. Times New Roman
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Graphology - Non-Serif
Informal/Colloquial e.g. Comic Sans
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Graphology - Punctuation
Key feature of any written text e.g. "." "," "?" "!" "..."
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Vovabulary, Word choices
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Lexical Fields
Groups of words tied to a particular topic
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To do with the sound of words
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Phonology - Monosyllabic
1 Syllable - short and sharp
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Phonology - Polysyllabic
More than one syllable - elongated
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Phonology - Onomatopoeia
Word imitates the sound e.g. buzz,pop,snap
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Phonology - Assonance
Repetition of vowels
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Structure and organisation of text
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Grammar - Word Classes
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Grammar - Sentences
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Dictionary definintion
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Ideas that a word provokes
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Word order
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Main word e.g. Animal
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Associated word e.g. Elephant
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Situational variation and how language varies in relation to audience, purposes and contexts
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Register Drift
Slang -> Formal or Formal -> Slang
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How language may vary as a consequence of the channel of communication (speech writing and mixed modes)
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Habitually linked group of words - a kind of lexical partnership e.g. "Salt and pepper" "Fish and chips"
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Verbs - Dynamic
Visual e.g. run,jump,lugh,take
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Verbs - Stative
Mental actions/states e.g. think,seem,anticipate.felt
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Verbs - Auxilary
A verb infront of another verb e.g. I have done, these are placed infront of the main verb
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Verbs - Modal
Go with another verb and changes the meaning e.g. should,could,would,must,will (obligation or morality)
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Verbs - Primary
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Verbs - Finite
no auxilary, no "-ing", main on its own e.g. I was,I rode,We walked
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Voice - Active
The active voice of the verb will have a recognisable subject which performs the action of the verb e.g. The government issued a statement
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Voice - Passive
The passive voice changes the object to the subject and places it at the beginning of the sentence e.g. A statement was issued by the government.
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Reference - Anaphoric
Looks back in time
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Reference - Cataphoric
Looks forward in time
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Words used that you must already understand or have prior knowledge about e.g. a teacher asks for homework and says "get it out of your bag" "it" is the homework
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Words such as "The", "A" or "An" that proceed nouns are known as determiners. Qualify nouns. 5 main types - Articles,Numbers,Possessive determiners, Demonstrative and Indefinite
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Determiners - Article
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Determiners - Article - Definite
"The" is known as the defininte article, can be used before a singular or plural noun
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Determiners - Article - Indefinite
"A" or "An" are indefinite, only used before a singular noun
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Determiners - Numbers - Ordinal
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Determiners - Numbers - Cardinal
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Determiners - Possessive
Ownership - Ours,My
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Determiners - Demonstrative
Contrast - This,These
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Determiners - Indefinite
Quantities - Some,Several,More
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Main/Independant Clauses
A main clause is a group of words which contain one verb and make sense on its own e.g. He walked to the end of the road. I shivered.
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Subordiante/Dependent Clauses
.Does not make sense on it own therefore cannot stand on its own and may come before or after the main clause
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Coordinating Conjunctions
e.g. but,or,nor,either,neither,and
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Sentences - Types - Simple
A sentence which contains only one main clause, often short and simple e.g. the boy ran fast. not always short and simple e.g. the boy wearing the black and white padded jacket ran quickly down the road at lunchtime.
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Sentences - Types - Compound
Consists of 2 main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction e.g. I shivered and turned up my collar. We must hurry or we'll be late
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Sentences - Types - Complex
Consists of a main clause plus one or more subordinate clauses e.g. I lent her my savings [MC] because she was short of money [SC]. When the weather improves [SC] we are going on holiday [MC]
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Sentences - Types - Minor
Single words (isnt technically a sentence) e.g. Enjoy. Great.
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Sentences - Forms - Interrogative
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Sentences - Forms - Declarative
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Sentences - Forms - Imperative
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Sentences - Forms
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Modify a verb (or other adverbs),usually follows verb and preceeds adjectives. take an adjective and add "-ly" e.g. slowly,quickly
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Adverbial Clause
Phrase or clause around the verb, time place or manner (optioal information) e.g.Mr Jones ate the burger hungrily, Mr Jones at the burger last week
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Adverbs of manner
e.g. well, slowly
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Adverbs of place
Prepositions e.g. everywhere,up,out
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Adverbs of time
When something happens e.g. now afterwards,today
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Adverbs of frequency
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What type of text is it? e.g. advert,story,information
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Who is it aimed at? e.g. children,adults,men,women,specialists,general public
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What is it for? e.g. persuasion,inform,instruct [ADVERTISE IS NOT A PURPOSE]
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Tenor/Implied Speaker
What is the tone of the text? e.g. friendly,angry,serious,lihhthearted,forceful. What kind of person does the voice of the text belong to? Why is he/she speaking to the reader in this way?
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Implied Reader
What kind of person is being addressed? does the text seem to assume the reader is a certain type of person? Do you feel included or excluded in the way it communicates?
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Adjectives - Descriptive
Add a factual description of the physical properties of the noun e.g. metal,red
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Adjectives - Evaluative
Add an opinion (positive or negative)of the value of the noun e.g. Excellent film
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Adjectives - Emotive
Add an emotional opinion of the value of the noun e.g. devestating typhoon
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Adjectives - Comparative
Formed by adding "-er" to the adjectives, or by putting "more" infront of the adjective
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Adjectives - Superlative
Formed by adding "-est" to the adjective or putting "most" infront of the adjective
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Social beliefs
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[Gender] Marked Terms
Feeling the need to put gender infront of a term e.g. female surgeon, male nurse
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[Gender] Generic He
He/Him/Man used to refer to all genders, less so in modern times.
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[Gender] Word Endings
Females tend to have special endings e.g. -ette, -ess (actor-> actress, manager-> managaress, lad->ladette)
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[Gender] Word Order
Male comes first e.g. Mr&Mrs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


The specific way words are pronounced according to a geographical region e.g. Geordie, Glaswegian



Card 3


Automatic Responses e.g. "Hello" "Goodbye"


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Going back to something someone previously said, form of feedback


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Putting words together, used to appear more informal e.g. "can+not=can't"


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


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