Gender and Occupation Theories

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  • Created on: 08-01-16 18:26
Women use the word 'just' three times more than men.
Andrew Moore
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Men interrupt 96% of the time.
Zimmerman & West
2 of 75
Conversations are competitive to men.
Zimmerman & West
3 of 75
Men will interrupt if they think they have something better to say - engineering female silence.
Dale Spender
4 of 75
Women's voice goes up and down the most.
Brend (1980)
5 of 75
Men are most likely to lie.
Keith & Shuttleworth
6 of 75
Women swear the most when talking to the opposite sex.
Susan Githens
7 of 75
Women are more likely to talk when another person is talking.
Deborah Tannen
8 of 75
Creative overlap - women will say something supportive or approving whilst the another person is talking as women use conversation co-operatively.
Deborah Tannen
9 of 75
Men tell the most jokes.
Robin Lakoff
10 of 75
Men swear the most.
Susan Githens
11 of 75
Women use the most insults.
Deborah Tannen
12 of 75
Men are most likely to talk about themselves.
Zimmerman & West
13 of 75
Men use the most adjectives.
Robin Lakoff
14 of 75
Women use empty adjectives whereas men mainly use full adjectives.
Robin Lakoff
15 of 75
A discourse community share inferential frameworks (knowledge built over time and used in order to understand meanings that are implicit).
Drew and Heritage (1993)
16 of 75
There are strong hierarchies of power within organisations with many asymmetrical relationships marked by language use.
Drew and Heritage (1993)
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Solidarity
A feeling of connection with others, mutual support.
18 of 75
Face - A person's self-esteem or emotional needs.
Erving Goffman
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Positive face - An individual's need to feel valued, liked and appreciated.
Erving Goffman
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Negative face - An individual's need to not feel imposed on or have their freedom of action threatened.
Erving Goffman
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Face threatening acts - A communicative act that threatens someone's positive or negative face needs.
Erving Goffman
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Political power - That held by politicians, the police, and those working in the law courts.
Wareing (1999)
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Personal power - Power that is held as a result of their occupation or role, such as teachers or employers.
Wareing (1999)
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Social power - Those who hold power as a result of social variables such as class, gender, and age. Typically white, middle-class men hold power (Marxist perspective).
Wareing (1999)
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Instrumental power - Power linked to authority positions.
Fairclough
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Influential power - Power linked to persuasion.
Fairclough
27 of 75
Grice's Maxims - 4 rules of conversation; relevance, quantity, quality, manner.
Grice
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Semantic field of business - Terms to do with business people, companies, institutions, money, business events, places of business, time, modes of communication, and technology.
Michael Nelson compared a corpus of business language with the British National Corpus to see if there was a business lexis. He found, what he called, the semantic field of business.
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Discourse community - Share a set of common goals; communicate internally; use specialist lexis and discourse, possess a required level of knowledge and skill to be considered eligible to participate in the community.
John Swales (2011)
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Phatic talk - Important in getting jobs done. Workers need to establish interpersonal relationships and have interactions that are not just about work-related procedures.
Koester (2004)
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Convergence/Divergence model
In conversation we are seen to converge or diverge depending on the recipient of our utterances.
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Dominance model
Men have traditionally had more power in society and women have been used to being subservient. This causes language differences between the genders.
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Difference model
There are differences between the genders' speech but neither is better. Men and women use language for different purposes: men compete and women co-operate.
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Deficit model (Lakoff)
Men's speech is the standard that all language is measured by. Women's speech falls short and is weak.
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Diversity model
Gender is one of many factors that may influence people's use of language. There may be more differences between two women's speech than between a man's and a woman's.
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Asymmetry
A marked difference in the power status of individuals involved in discourse.
37 of 75
Initiation-Response-Feedback (IRF)
A structure in speech that allows the first speaker to feedback on the response of the second speaker. This is very common in classroom situations.
38 of 75
Formulation
The rewording of another's contribution by a powerful participant to impose a certain meaning or understanding.
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Restricted occupational lexis
Specialist vocabulary.
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Women use more intensifiers, especially so and very.
Robin Lakoff
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Women have a lack of sense of humour. They do not tell jokes and often don't understand the punchline of jokes.
Robin Lakoff
42 of 75
Women use hedge; phrases such as sort of, kind of, it seems like.
Robin Lakoff
43 of 75
Women use polite forms e.g. would you mind, if you don't mind
Robin Lakoff
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Women use tag questions
Robin Lakoff
45 of 75
Women speak in italics - intonational emphasis equal to underlining words e.g. so, very, quite
Robin Lakoff
46 of 75
Women use hyper-correct grammar and pronunciation
Robin Lakoff
47 of 75
Women use direct quotation whilst men paraphrase
Robin Lakoff
48 of 75
Women use more words for things like colours, men for sport.
Robin Lakoff
49 of 75
Woman use question intonation in declarative statements by raising their pitch at the end of a statement expressing uncertainty.
Robin Lakoff
50 of 75
Women use wh- imperatives e.g. why don't you open the door?
Robin Lakoff
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Women speak less frequently
Robin Lakoff
52 of 75
Women overuse qualifiers e.g. I think that
Robin Lakoff
53 of 75
Women apologise more
Robin Lakoff
54 of 75
Women use modal constructions e.g. can, would, should, ought - should we turn up the heat?
Robin Lakoff
55 of 75
Women avoid coarse language or expletives
Robin Lakoff
56 of 75
Women use indirect commands and requests e.g. Isn't it cold in here? (a request to close the window)
Robin Lakoff
57 of 75
Men tend to use more vernacular (local) patterns of pronunciation of women.
N/A
58 of 75
There is a tendency for women, particularly lower middle class women in formal situations, to move towards the prestige form.
Peter Trudgill's work in Norwich
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Men tend to use non-standard forms with covert prestige as a means of social bonding.
Dale Spender
60 of 75
Men whose speech revealed high usage of vernacular forms were found to belong to tight-knit social networks.
N/A
61 of 75
Non-standard forms are used less often by girls than boys.
Jenny Cheshire monitored the speech of adolescents in Reading.
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Male speakers use non-standard forms more consistently.
Jenny Cheshire
63 of 75
Boys belong to more structured peer groups.
Jenny Cheshire
64 of 75
Girls belong to less tightly-knit peer groups.
Jenny Cheshire.
65 of 75
Girls are more likely to shift their style according to social context.
Jenny Cheshire
66 of 75
Some boys, when alienated from school culture, use more non-standard forms in class as an act of rebellion.
Jenny Cheshire
67 of 75
Women, in wanting the best for their children, tend to try and impose standards of correction.
Jenny Cheshire
68 of 75
Older people are uncomfortable about women swearing and hearing men swear. However, young people are more tolerant of this form of language use.
N/A
69 of 75
Men are more likely to use swear words abusively than women.
N/A
70 of 75
Men swear to impress.
N/A
71 of 75
Boys use explicit commands e.g. get off my steps.
Goodwin (1990)
72 of 75
Girls tend to use mitigated directives e.g. let's go around Sue's and Sally's.
Goodwin (1990)
73 of 75
Girls use modal auxiliaries e.g. we could go around looking for more bottles.
Goodwin (1990)
74 of 75
The form 'let's' is hardly ever used by boys.
Goodwin (1990)
75 of 75

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Zimmerman & West

Back

Men interrupt 96% of the time.

Card 3

Front

Zimmerman & West

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Dale Spender

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Brend (1980)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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