English Terminology

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  • Created by: EmilyHope
  • Created on: 19-05-16 14:51
Common Noun
A naming word for a thing that is perceptible by touch, eg; chair, man, toast
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Abstract Noun
A naming word for an idea, concept, state of being or belief, eg; sadness, love, politics, Christianity
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Proper Noun
A naming word for a specific example of a common noun (typically people or places), eg; Eiffel Tower, Canada, David Beckham
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Verb
A word that represents an action or process, simple terms a 'doing' word
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Active Verb
A verb that represents a physical action, eg; run, kiss, sleep
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Stative Verb
Verb that represents that is mental, eg; think, believe, love
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Modal Verb
A verb that expresses a degree of possibility or necesity, eg; might, could, should
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Adjective
A describing word that modifies a noun, eg; bright, bold, pretty
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Adverb
A descriptive word that modifies all word classes, excluding nouns, eg; quickly, clumsily, cleverly
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Superlative
An adjective that displays the most extreme value of quiality, eg; best, quietest, smallest
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Camparative
An adjective that relates one thing in some way to another and usually ends in 'er', eg; bigger, fuller, cosier
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Definite Article
The
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Indefinate Article
a or an
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Pronoun
A word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence, eg; him, her, it, they, me
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First Person Personal Pronoun
I, and first person plural, we, our, us
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Second Person Pronoun
you
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Third Person Pronoun
Him, her, she, it, and third person plural, them, those
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Possesive Pronoun
my, mine, out, your, his, hers, theirs
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Demonstrative Pronoun
this, that, those
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Monosyllabic Lexis
Words with one syllable, eg; dog, rock, ball
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Polysyllabic Lexis
Words with more than one syllable, eg; Bucket, shovel, sandwich
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Imperative Sentence
A command, eg; Go and wash your hands.
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Declarative Sentence
A statement, eg; Revision is boring.
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Interrogative Sentence
A question, eg; Who are you?
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Exclamatory Sentence
A sentence conveying a strong sense of emotion, eg; Please don't steal my revision cards!
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Tenor
The tone, or the relationshop between author and reader
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Context
What the text is about
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Context (other)
Things outside of the text that shape its meaning, eg; time period, who wrote it, what it was written for
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Mode
The form of the text (spoken, written)
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Themes
Recurring images in a text
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Colloquialism
Informal language usages, typicaly ordinary use, eg; bloke, ****, lass
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Exclamation
A one word exclamative sentence
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Elliptical Sentence/ Ellipsis
When part of the structure is missing in a sentence, eg; Going to shop. (They still make sense, but they are not proper sentences, this whould be I am going to the shop.)
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Syntax
The ordering of words in a sentence to create meaning
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Parenthesis
A sectioning of information in a text, typicalling between brackets, dashes, or commas.
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Rhetorical Question
A question designed to pique interest or make a point, eg; Don't we already know what a rhetorical question is?
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Hypophora
A question followed immediatley by an answer, eg; "Am I bored yet? I certainly am."
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Hyperbole
Delibirate exageration for effect
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Litotes
Delibirate downplaying for effect
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Parellelism/ Patterning
The creation of patterns with in a text, through repitition or balancing meanings
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Repitition
Repeating of a word or phrase, eg; I am tired, I am cold, I am hungry, I am bored
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Tricolon
grouping in threes, typically repitition or structures
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Imagery
A sdescriptive or metaphorical use of language to create a picture
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Metaphor
A comparison to something being something else. eg; He drowned in a sea of grief.
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Similie
A comparison that states something is 'like' something else, eg; The bull is as big as a house
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Analogy
explaining something in terms of something else
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Allusion
To refer to something indirectly or metaphorically
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Pathetic Fallicy
When the enviroment or weather sets a tone/ mood or mirrors a characters emotions
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Personification
When non-hum subjects are given personal human qualities, eg; the trees danced in the wind
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Extended Metaphor
A metaphor continues throughout a text with recurring referneces
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Homeric/ epic similie
Extended throughout text
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Symbolism
Using figurative or metaphorical language to create a meaning respresentative to other things
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Lexis
The fancy term for 'word'
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Fielf Specific Lexis A.K.A Jargon
Words that a relative to the subject of talk
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Semantics
The meaning of words
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Acronym
Words created by the initials, eg; RSPCA (NOT INITIALISM)
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Synonym
Alternative word choice for the same word meaning
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Archaic Lexis
Old, typically unused language, eg; thus, Puissant, rapacious
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Juxtaposition
The placing together of two images or words that create a contrasting effect
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Oxymoron
The use of contradictory words in a phrase, eg; hot ice
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Asyndetic Listing
The listing of subjects without any conjunction, 'A' being the 'abscene of'
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Syndetic Listing
Listing of a subject with conjunctions
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Phonological feauture
Any device used in relation to sound, eg; alliteration, repitition, sibilance
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Onomatopeia
When a word sounds as it is spelt, eg; plop, squelch, kaboom
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Consonance`
Repitition of a consonant with in a sentence, eg; I's better buy more butter
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Assonance
The repitition of a vowel sound within a sentence, eg; Could you chop wood good
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Plot
The structured cause and effect of incidents- what happens
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Exposition
The parts of a story where the author gets across all the information about the situation before the plot begins, it is usually very subtle and occurs at the beginning of the story
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Narrator
The voice of the story
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Protagonist
The hero of the story who the reader is supposed to identify with most and follow through the story (almost always the main character)
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Antagonist
The character who opposes the protagonist
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Dialogue
The presentation of a characters speech
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Monologue
A typpe of poem or prolonged drama where one character delivers a speech
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Dramatic Irony
When the audience is aware of more than one of the characters in either a play or a piece of fiction to create a dramatic effect.
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Ambiguity
When there can be more than one possible meaning or outcome in a story, creating a sense of intrigue
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Anthropomorphism
When an animal takes on human characteristics, eg; wearing clothes, talking, standing up
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Genre
Category of fiction or type of text, eg; romance, mystery, thriller
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Audience
Who the text is aimed at
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Purpose
The reason the text has been produced, eg; to inform, to entertain
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Foreshadowing
The hinting of things to come with in the story
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Satire
A piece of wwriting or art that pokes fun at social establishment
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Coumpound word
A word created by utilising two existing words seperated by a hyphen, eg; bone-headed, -go-straight
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Clipping
Colloguial omission of parts of words for a more casual, informal effect, eg; 'cause, pram
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Connotation
Association of words
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Denotation
The literal meaning of words
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Irony
Language that conveys a meaning other than to express the literal meaning
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Euphemism
Politely saying something not normally socially appropriate, eg; I'm going to powder my nose instead of I'm going to wee
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Dysphemism
An unnessicary extreme way of saying or explaining something, not socially appropriate
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Headline
Title
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Tagline
Beneath the title, to clarify what is going on in a short sentence, generally beneath the headline
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Subheading
Similar to a title, used to break up a text into smaller sections
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Caption
Multi-modal text, juxtaposed with an image to describe what is going on
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Grab Quote
An enlarged example taken from the text, often seen in magazines of newspapers
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Slogan
A catchy line that sums up an advert
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Pun
A play on words
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Cliche
When a phrase or saying is overused to the pont of losing its original meaning, eg; As cute as a button, As bad as a dog,
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Discourse Marker
A word startinga sentence that moves along an idea with in the text, eg; however, anyway
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Paralinguistic Features
Anything outside of speech that helps aid dialogue, eg; laughter, body language, movement, facial expression
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Turn Taking
Used in speech, and interviews, when speakers literally take turns
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Adjacency Pair
Used in turn taking to lead the conversation, work together as a pair, eg; question and statement, statement and statement
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Back Channeling
Giving feedback through a noise or a comment to show the other person is listening, eg; when somebody nods or sayd 'yeah' as you're talking
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Filler
Often part of a persons idiolect, commonly a phrase or noise used often with in sentences, and speech, eg; like, sort of, right, you know
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Elision
omission of a sound in the prnunciation of a word, eg; I'm, it's
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Tag question
A question at the end of a statement to verify what they're saying, eg; So this is the truck, right?
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Regional Dialect
Words used and spoken grammar particular to a graphical location
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Sociolect
Vocabulary and spoken grammar particular to a social group
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Idiolect
Speech patterns of an individual
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Enjambent
Run on lines in a poem
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Couplet
A two line verse
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Caesura
A mid line pause
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Alternate Rhyme
When every other line rhymes, eg; (ABAB)
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Eye Rhyme
When the sound is not exactly the same but it looks like it should hyme
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Octet
Eighht line verse
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Stanza
The division in a poem, known sometimes as a verse
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Volta
Turning point in a sonnet, using on the ninth line
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Sonnet
14 lines, divided into an octet and sestet, written in an iambic pentameter, volta, and a rhyming scheme of abbaabbba cdecde
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Sestet
Six line verse
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A naming word for an idea, concept, state of being or belief, eg; sadness, love, politics, Christianity

Back

Abstract Noun

Card 3

Front

A naming word for a specific example of a common noun (typically people or places), eg; Eiffel Tower, Canada, David Beckham

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A word that represents an action or process, simple terms a 'doing' word

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A verb that represents a physical action, eg; run, kiss, sleep

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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